It gives me great pleasure to introduce a new video series, “I Am NTSB.”
As a Board Member and now as Chairman of the NTSB, I’m often called on to describe our transportation safety mission or our investigative process. It’s a never-ending source of inspiration to think that, just maybe, what we do on a given workday will save lives in the future.
But other people ask me a much simpler question. They ask me what it’s like to work at the NTSB.
For me, it’s a dream job. As an airline pilot, and even before, I got to know what the agency did, and I always wanted to be a part of it. But what I knew little about were the people at this agency. It’s my privilege to lead a top-notch staff with diverse backgrounds, skills, and viewpoints. I’m constantly astounded by their many thoughtful ways of looking at things.
That’s why we created this series of video profiles of our employees. Through these video vignettes, viewers will learn a little more about our people and hear how our employees view the NTSB. If you’re one of those people who wonders what it’s like to work here, this video series is for you.
And who knows? Working at the NTSB might be for you, too!
April is Alcohol Awareness Month. First introduced in 1987 by the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Inc., this time is set aside to increase public awareness for alcohol-related issues and to encourage communities to focus on ways to address this public health problem. In 2016, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 10,497 people across the United States were killed by drivers with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of .08 g/dL or higher. That means that every 50 minutes, a person is killed in an alcohol-impaired crash in the United States.
At the NTSB, we find this tragic and unacceptable, because every one of these crashes is preventable.
Next week, the Lifesavers National Conference on Highway Safety Priorities will take place in San Antonio, Texas. More than 2,000 highway safety professionals from across the United States will gather to meet, learn, and share their proven-effective programs to increase the safety of America’s roadways, including implementing impaired driving prevention programs, improving enforcement strategies, and encouraging legislative changes. I’m especially excited to be attending the conference this year, not only because it’s being hosted in my home state, but also because I will be speaking on a panel focused on lowering the illegal BAC from .08 to .05 percent in states across our nation. A take-home message that I hope all Lifesavers attendees will remember is that a .05 BAC is a broad prevention strategy which deters even drivers with high BACs from getting behind the wheel.
Reducing drinking and driving deaths takes a comprehensive approach, and lowering the illegal BAC limit is just one part of the impaired-driving-prevention equation. Other important solutions can be found below, through our past blogs, safety recommendations, and efforts to address alcohol-impaired driving. With one-third of all traffic fatalities related to impaired driving, and more than 10,000 American lives lost every year, our work is far from over.
We have accomplished a great deal when it comes to reducing alcohol-impaired driving, but there is much more to be done to save lives and prevent injuries. The way I see it, the solution—this month and every month—is simple: if we separate drinking from driving, we will save lives.
In this episode of Behind-the-Scene @NTSB, we have a great chat with the Managing Director of the NTSB, Dennis Jones. Dennis has been with the Agency for a few years and has held different positions from intern to aviation field investigator to supervisor to chief and now the Managing Director.
He shares with us his transportation journey and some highlights from his career at the NTSB.
April is Distracted Driving Awareness Month, a time set aside to raise awareness about the dangers surrounding distracted driving. We continue to see far too many crashes in all transportation modes involving cognitive, visual, and manual distraction. Almost every driver has a portable electronic device, and if those devices are used while a person is driving, they pose a significant risk—not only to that driver, but to the public, as well.
Although distraction has always had the potential to interfere with vehicle operation, new technologies have made it easier to become distracted, and therefore easier to become a risk to ourselves or others. William James wrote in 1892 that “All our life, so far as it has definite form, is but a mass of habits.” Today, constant connectivity has become a mass of habits for many. But when it comes to driving, our eyes, minds, and hands should be on the driving task.
Distraction causes thousands of lives to be lost every year on our roads and it contributes to hundreds of thousands of injuries. We began calling for a ban on driver use of portable electronic devices in 2011. See the links below for some of the other steps we’ve taken to raise awareness about distracted driving and facilitate solutions.
The ability to multitask is a myth. Humans cannot operate a vehicle while doing other things without risking the safety of themselves and those around them. Hands-free is not risk free—research shows a driver’s level of cognitive distraction is about equal for hands-free or hand-held communication.
Changing attitudes and behavior takes a sustained awareness effort, better laws, and high‑visibility enforcement of those laws. This combined approach has resulted in widespread seat belt use and gains against drunk driving. We’ve begun to make an impact on the distracted driving habit using these techniques, and you can do your part just by disconnecting for the drive.
On July 17, 1996, about 12 minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York, Trans World Airlines (TWA) flight 800 (TWA-800), a Boeing 747-131, crashed in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. The accident killed all 230 people on board, and the airplane was destroyed. The NTSB’s investigation of this accident was the most extensive, complex, and costly air disaster investigation in US history, and was the subject of high public interest and front-page headlines for years.
On August 23, 2000, a little more than 4 years after the crash, the NTSB determined the probable cause to be an explosion of the center wing fuel tank (CWT), resulting from ignition of the flammable fuel/air mixture in the tank. Because multiple potential sources were identified, the singular source of ignition for the explosion could not be determined with certainty, but the likely source was a short circuit outside of the CWT that allowed excessive voltage to enter the vapor-laden fuel tank through the fuel-quantity–indicating system in the CWT.
On December 13, 1996, while the investigation was still ongoing, the NTSB issued the first of three sets of safety recommendations to the FAA. We based these initial recommendations on early findings of the investigation to address the threat of a fuel tank exploding on an airliner. Two recommendations included the development of design or operational changes to prevent explosive fuel-air mixtures in the fuel tanks—including the development of nitrogen-inerting systems. A nitrogen-inerting system replaces the air in an empty fuel tank with nitrogen, creating an environment in which neither a fire nor an explosion can occur. A total revision to FAA regulations for wiring and maintenance, including those of fuel-quantity–indicating systems, also resulted from our findings in this accident investigation.
The FAA’s initial response to our inerting recommendations was to convene a group of industry experts, who found that the costs of implementing the recommendations was too high to be practical. We disagreed and urged the FAA to consider other options. The FAA tried again, tinkering around the edges of the problem, focusing on the wiring and electrical systems in aging aircraft. We welcomed these improvements but reiterated that the agency was ignoring the core issue—the hazard posed by potentially explosive aircraft fuel tanks. To its credit, the FAA chose to apply some “out of the box” thinking, and, together with Boeing, developed a system on the airplane to address the threat.
That innovative technology, called a molecular sieve, separates air into nitrogen and oxygen, the two primary gases. The oxygen is vented overboard while the nitrogen is used to inert the fuel tank. The FAA performed in-depth analysis of the technology, and Boeing produced several prototype systems for testing and evaluation. These tests showed the system to be effective, have minimal operational challenges, and to be reasonably priced. Boeing began installing these systems on some of the new airplanes it was producing.
On November 23, 2005, the FAA proposed a new regulation that required newly manufactured and in-service airliners to reduce the chances of a catastrophic fuel-tank explosion. A final rule was enacted by in 2008, and 100 percent compliance with the rule became mandatory on December 26th of 2017—21 years after the NTSB first recommended fuel-tank inerting to the FAA.
The enactment of the fuel-tank flammability rule is a major safety improvement, addressing a critical safety problem at the heart of many aviation accidents over 45 years. However, its enactment was clearly far from easy; it took the persistent advocacy of the NTSB and the efforts of FAA and Boeing staff unsatisfied with cursory cost-benefit analyses. It took the commitment of senior management at the FAA and DOT—including the Director of the Certification Service, Associate Administrator of Safety, the FAA Administrator, and the Secretary of Transportation—to implement this needed safety regulation.
The traveling public is safer today because these organizations, working together, refused to take “no” for an answer.
The NTSB is releasing a series of blogs highlighting the progress the transportation community is making in each mode to advance issues on our 2017–2018 Most Wanted List. This series sheds light on the progress made and what needs to be done going forward to improve transportation safety. This is the fourth and final blog of the series.
On November 14, 2017, the day before our Most Wanted List (MWL) progress meeting, we concluded our investigation into the April 2016 Amtrak train derailment in Chester, Pennsylvania. As I offer the closing words of this blog series highlighting the progress made to address issues on our list, the NTSB is presently investigating the December 2017 Amtrak train derailment in DuPont, Washington, and the February 2018 Amtrak train and CSX freight train collision near Cayce, South Carolina. And, on February 15, I testified before the US Congress regarding the urgency for the industry to fully implement positive train control (PTC) by year’s end. That same day, we also issued three urgent safety recommendations to address findings from our investigations into the Cayce accident and the June 2017 Long Island Rail Road accident in Queens Village, New York.
At our midpoint meeting, I joined members from our Office of Rail, Pipeline, and Hazardous Materials Investigations to lead a discussion on rail safety. While there has been progress with implementing some of the NTSB’s recommendations, the Chester and DuPont derailments and the Cayce collision tragically illustrate that more needs to be done – and quickly!
Expand recorder use to enhance safety
Ensure teh safe shipment of hazardous materials
End alcohol and other drug impairment in transportation
A deficient safety management system and impairment were factors in the fatal Chester accident. And, like many accidents we’ve investigated, distraction played a role. When the accident occurred, the dispatcher was speaking to his spouse on a landline. We’ve recommended that Amtrak prohibit such calls while dispatchers are on duty and responsible for safe train operations.
The Chester accident also illustrated the fact that drug use by rail workers has been on the rise in recent years, playing a part in seven accidents in the last 3 years and nine accidents in the last decade, compared to only one accident in the prior decade. In the Chester accident, a backhoe operator who was killed had cocaine in his system, and two different opioids were discovered in the track supervisor’s system. During our investigation, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) moved quickly to require random urine drug screening for maintenance‑of‑way workers, effective April 2018. Additionally, the Amtrak locomotive engineer tested positive for marijuana, although there was no operational evidence that his prior drug use impaired his performance on the morning of the accident. What it did show, however, is that despite DOT random drug testing requirements for locomotive engineers, such a program did not deter his use of an illicit drug.
Fatigue and medical fitness are other significant MWL issues for rail, and we’re disappointed that the FRA and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration have withdrawn an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking that would’ve supported sleep apnea screening for railroads and for commercial highway carriers. Clearly, there’s still important work to do on these issues.
Reduce Fatigue-Related Accidents
Improve rail transit safety oversight
Strengthen occupant protection
Require medical fitness for duty
Regarding another significant MWL issue for rail, strengthen occupant protection, the FRA has made progress toward developing a performance standard for keeping window glazing in place during an accident. Unfortunately, meaningful improvements related to the safety of corner posts, door designs, restraint systems, and locomotive cab crashworthiness have been slow.
The MWL’s safe transport of hazardous materials issue area focuses on transporting energy products in safer tank cars, built to the DOT-117 rather than DOT-111 and CPC 1232 standards. We are pleased to see that the more robust DOT-117 standard is being used for transport of crude oil. Ethanol transport, however, still widely relies on the DOT-111 and CPC 1232 standards. We urge stakeholders to move to using the DOT-117 standard when carrying ethanol as soon as possible, ahead of the mandated deadlines.
There has been little, if any, progress to improve transit safety oversight since we released the current MWL. To exercise effective oversight, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) must continue to use the authority it gained with the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act and Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act to promulgate safety rules.
Finally, on the issue of expanding recorder use, the industry is moving forward with installing inward-facing video cameras on passenger trains, which is a step in the right direction. However, we would like to see the FRA move forward on requiring the installation and that the requirement be expanded to include audio recording, and we believe that the freight rule should follow suit. The FTA still has no such requirements for transit rail.
As I offer the last thoughts on our MWL midpoint meeting blog series, I want to thank all those who attended for taking the time to offer suggestions and share their perspectives on the issues affecting the safety of our nation’s transportation system. As we move into the second year of this MWL cycle, I challenge our stakeholders to target one or more recommendations on which they can make measurable progress before this year is over. We all want to have the safest transportation in the world, and it will take us working together to accomplish it.
March is Women’s History Month, so it’s only appropriate to look at some of the American women who have helped influence and shape today’s transportation system, including those working at the NTSB today.
We have witnessed the extraordinary accomplishments of women like Bessica Raiche, the first female pilot in the United States to make a planned flight, and our very own Member Bella Dinh-Zarr, the first Asian American to become a Board Member at the NTSB. Member Dinh-Zarr has spent years advocating for and promoting safe and sustainable transportation. These women have reached great heights in their careers and are renowned nationwide for their successes.
Yet, there are many more women—perhaps not as nationally known but just as important to the NTSB’s critical mission—that we would like to recognize. In celebration of Women’s History Month, we recently sat down with some of the exceptional women who have emerged from the NTSB’s ranks to become leaders in management and safety. They inspire staff every day to work hard to improve transportation safety, sharing NTSB safety messages and encouraging us all to remember our mission to save lives. They are role models for many at the agency—men and women. We asked them to share their thoughts on leadership with staff last week at a special briefing, and we think their lessons are beneficial to all, even those outside our organization. Here’s what they had to say.
Dana Schulze is the deputy director of the NTSB’s Aviation Safety (AS) Office. As second-in-command of AS, she oversees all aviation accident and incident investigations in the United States and those involving US products or operations overseas. More than 50 air safety investigators and supporting staff within AS report directly to her. She approves information AS releases and routinely briefs Congressional staff and industry stakeholders on behalf of our agency. She began her career in the aircraft manufacturing industry as a mechanical engineer and has experience developing, manufacturing, and conducting failure investigations involving aircraft systems. From there, she rose through the NTSB ranks to her current position. She attributes her success to a continuous learning approach and her interest in improving aviation safety. Because of her critical-thinking skills and ability to lead others, she quickly rose to a leadership position at the agency.
According to Schulze, she did not initially set out to join management, but when the opportunity was offered, she recognized that she could add value and be a good fit. She believes a leader should be able to inspire and motivate others. Through integrity, consistency, and transparency, a leader “can instill a balance of vision and practicality,” she says. She says she has been inspired by thought leaders such as Steven Covey. Transportation has long been a male-dominated industry, and Schulze encourages women to get involved with transportation-related STEM programs that interest them, even those outside their comfort zones.
Sharon Bryson is the NTSB’s deputy managing director. She joined the agency more than 20 years ago after a career providing services to military families at Dover Air Force Base. When she arrived at the NTSB, the agency had just been given the responsibility for family assistance by Congress. Bryson took a lead role in setting up the NTSB’s first family assistance program. This program, now called Transportation Disaster Assistance, is still in place today and has served thousands of families over the years. Later, after serving as director of the Office of Safety Recommendations and Communications, Bryson became the agency’s deputy managing director, a position that involves assisting the Managing Director with managing the day-to-day activities of the agency.
According to Bryson, having the opportunity to mentor others and share what she has learned about leadership is very important to her. She strives daily to engage with staff members and actively highlights their individual abilities, with the goal of seeing them thrive. “A leader is supposed to support and guide,” she says. By recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of the people around her, she puts value in their diverse opinions; there is no room for judgement or negativity. “When all of these are combined, it creates an environment where people feel engaged and encouraged,” she says.
Shannon Bennett came to the NTSB’s Office of General Counsel in June 2010 before becoming an advisory and special assistant to Board Member Dinh-Zarr in June 2015. She comes from a long military history, having enlisted in 1993 as an Air Force ROTC cadet during college, then serving 11 years on active duty as a judge advocate. She continued to serve in the Air Force Reserve and was assigned as a judge advocate in the Office of The Judge Advocate General at the Pentagon. According to Bennett, when she separated from active duty in 2010, she wanted to find a job where, as in the Air Force, she felt that she was serving her country and making a difference in people’s lives. That’s how she wound up at NTSB.
Leadership is “the art of influencing and directing people to accomplish the mission,” Bennett says, quoting the Air Force Pamphlet on Leadership she received as an ROTC cadet. She tries to live by the adage “saw the log in front of you,” meaning, do your very best in every job that’s given to you no matter how big or small, rather than seek the glory of a job you don’t have. Mentoring is also very important to her, and she encourages all leaders to guide others.
As we celebrate Women’s History Month, let’s all take the time to look around us and celebrate the unique and powerful women in our own lives. We are so grateful to have Dana, Sharon, and Shannon as members of our “Women Dream Team,” as well as all the other female employees at the agency who work daily to improve transportation safety and inspire those around them.