Category Archives: Events

Teen Drivers: Don’t Take Your Return to the Road for Granted

By: Nicholas Worrell, Chief, Office of Safety Advocacy

We recently announced the launch of a new #SafetyReminder campaign to provide the traveling public with a few friendly reminders as unprecedented stay-at-home restrictions are eased and we slowly resume air, rail, road, and marine travel.

During this return to “normalcy,” we’re especially concerned about young drivers. That’s why we partnered with Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD) to host a virtual get together to reach out to teen drivers and their parents.

It’s an understatement to say that 2020’s young drivers have seen a lot in a short time. Like the rest of us, teens have done their part to slow the spread of the coronavirus through self-quarantine, protecting both themselves and others. Now that the country is slowly reopening, it’s time to return our focus to what’s most deadly to young drivers and their peers. It’s time to think not only about socially distancing ourselves, but also about isolating our cars from hazards like vulnerable road users, roadside obstacles, and even other cars. It’s time for a reminder about the biggest threat to teens’ lives: traffic crashes.

Parents have always passed the car keys to the next generation with trembling hands, and for good reason. Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for every age group between 1 and 44. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fatal injury for people between the ages of 15 and 44. So, when it’s time to return to the road, we all need to be aware of the “danger zones” for young drivers:

  1. Inexperience
  2. Driving with teen passengers
  3. Nighttime driving
  4. Not using seat belts
  5. Distraction
  6. Drowsiness
  7. Impairment
  8. Reckless driving

Although it’s good for young drivers—and their parents—to refresh their knowledge of all the danger zones, they should be aware that our recent isolation may have increased risk in certain danger zone categories. For example, stay-at-home orders have hampered new drivers’ ability to gain experience and start to internalize many of the actions that will become second nature with more time behind the wheel. Any skills even the most seasoned driver had before lockdown will be rusty; that’s compounded for new drivers who have had far less time to practice behind the wheel. Beyond that, young drivers may not weigh risk as carefully as their adult counterparts, and the excitement of getting back on the road may easily manifest as risky behavior.

Here’s another consideration that teens and their parents might overlook: driving with teen passengers not only makes it harder for teen drivers to keep their concentration on the road, but it also flies in the face of social distancing. We understand that it’s been a long time since we’ve gotten together with people outside our homes, and teen drivers are probably the most eager of anyone to reunite with their friends. But reunions don’t belong in the same car, where distraction can be as contagious as a virus. Nothing good is going to come from getting behind the wheel if those reunions involve illegal use of alcohol or other drugs, or they go late into the night, or a driver is running on little sleep.

While distraction from passengers is one risk to avoid, driving while distracted by personal electronic devices—which was deadly before the pandemic—is potentially even deadlier now, given how accustomed we’ve become to practicing virtual contact. The always-connected world that helped us be resilient during this isolating time can also make us vulnerable to danger if we continue that constant connection while behind the wheel. No call, no text, no update, is worth a human life.

Even age-old risky behaviors, like speeding, that have always been a pitfall for young drivers pose an increased danger following isolation. The roads have been emptier for months, and some drivers have taken advantage, driving unimpeded at breakneck speed. Even on nearly empty roads, drivers need to leave the lead foot at home and keep an eye out for those who treat the less-crowded roads like their personal speedways. Most importantly, drivers need to make sure they—and their passengers—are always using seat belts, in case the high-risk driver in the next lane makes a bad decision.

Teens, for all your admirable resilience in the face of today’s challenges, you are still our most vulnerable and inexperienced road users. You’re going to be a great generation of adults before long; let us help make sure you make it there.

Parents and guardians, don’t send your teens back out on the road unprepared. Talk to your teens about the key components of driving and set the example for safe driving. A study by Liberty Mutual and SADD found that parents are setting a poor example for teens by engaging in unsafe driving behaviors, such as texting and driving, and are not listening to their kids’ warnings. Forty-one percent of teens say their parents continue these unsafe behaviors even after their teens ask them to stop, and 28 percent of teens say their parents justify unsafe behavior.  Take a moment to consider how to keep your young drivers safe, how to help them make good choices, and what example you’re setting. Take time to outline the key risks of driving. If you need a reminder, visit the websites of expert organizations like NHTSA and the CDC. And remember: your example is the most powerful instructor. Teens learn by example.

It’s been said that insisting on one’s rights without accepting one’s responsibilities is not freedom but adolescence. As somebody who works in youth safety outreach, I assure you, that’s an insult to today’s adolescents, who have used their voices and actions to demonstrate that they understand the role of conscience, mindfulness, and selfless service. I have no doubt this resilient group—many of whom gave up rites of passage, like prom and in-person graduation, to self-quarantine and protect those around them—can come back to the driving task with a renewed understanding of their profound responsibilities behind the wheel.

Our virtual joint event with SADD will take place on May 27, 2020, and we want to hear from parents and youth about the challenges and successes of returning to the road. We’ll also discuss resources that everyone can use to promote safer driving, whether they’re talking to peers, parents, or teens.

NTSB & SADD Transportation Safety Youth Leader Check-in

Teens, take care as you reenter the roadway. Don’t let your freedom from isolation end in unnecessary injury or death—for you or those around you. I know it will feel amazing to get back to some kind of normal, but don’t let your sacrifices of the past few months be in vain.

Global Road Safety Leaders of the Future

By Nicholas Worrell, Chief, NTSB Safety Advocacy Division

Last week, the NTSB hosted a group of students from around the world who are studying or pursuing higher education degrees in traffic safety. They came to us through the International Roads Federation (IRF) Fellows Program, which works to develop transportation safety leaders worldwide.

The students were from diverse cultures—Lebanese, Iranian, Japanese, Colombian, Libyan, Mexican, Palestinian, and Brazilian—but they had one thing in common: they were all studying at universities in the United States.

It was an honor to be chosen by the IRF to help develop and grow these fellows. The group got to hear from Jim Ritter, Director of Research and Engineering; Lisandra Garay-Vega, Supervisory Transportation Specialist; David Pereira, Vehicle Factors Investigator; and several of our lab experts.

In transportation safety, we often ask how we can change safety culture? This question applies in one way to organizations, looking at how a company’s culture might influence a driver’s actions of a driver. This kind of safety culture is widely studied but involves only the minority of accidents/crashes. Most crashes involve everyday drivers operating personal motor vehicles. How do we change the safety perspectives of everyday drivers? We start with investing in young leaders like those who joined us during the visit.

In the United States, we lose more than 40,000 lives every year as a result of accidents and crashes in all modes of transportation. Worldwide, according to the World Health Organization, we lose more than 1.35 million people every year on the roads, alone. When it comes to traffic safety, to truly change our safety culture, we must start with the younger generation. We must invest in ways to teach young children how to be safe on the roads long before they get behind the wheel for the first time. And we must invest our time in working with students like the IRF fellows, supporting their efforts to design transportation systems that protect all road users, not just those inside a motor vehicle.

At the NTSB, we strive to encourage and develop young safety leaders—teaching them to build bridges for others to cross, lay stepping stones for others to walk upon and shoulders for them to stand upon. Our core value of excellence goes beyond our central mission of issuing safety recommendations; it also applies to excellence in the service of others. In advocacy, it demands we pass along information to young leaders who will carry the mantel with a goal of safer transportation worldwide. We wish them well and lots of success.

 

Remembering Captain Al Haynes

By Jeff Marcus, Chief, NTSB Safety Recommendations Division

This past Sunday, August 25, 2019, Captain Al Haynes died a week shy of his 88th birthday. Captain Haynes was a remarkable pilot who, 30 years ago last month, brought United Airlines flight 232 to an emergency landing in Sioux City, Iowa, with no means of control except the ability to vary the thrust produced by the airplane’s two engines (the DC-10’s third engine had experienced an uncontained engine failure). Although 111 passengers ultimately perished in the accident, the actions of Captain Haynes and the other crewmembers saved the lives of 184 others on the flight.

The sequence of events started when the airplane’s central engine in the tail failed, sending heavy, high-speed shrapnel spraying through the rear of the airplane. The shrapnel cut all three of the airplane’s hydraulic lines and all hydraulic pressure was lost. This left no way for the pilots to control the airplane—at least, no way intentionally designed for that purpose. Hydraulic pressure was needed to move the airplane’s control surfaces and allow it to turn, climb or descend in response to pilot input, and to configure the airplane for landing by extending the flaps.

After the engine failure, the airplane started banking to the right and its nose dropped. The crew tried to stop the bank and bring the nose up, but the airplane did not respond. The only controls that worked were the throttles for the remaining two engines, one on each wing. By varying how much power each engine produced—that is, applying differential thrust—the pilots were able to stop the turn and bring the airplane level.

The plane pulled right, and slowly oscillated vertically in what is called a phugoid cycle, losing approximately 1,500 feet of altitude with each cycle. Among the passengers on the flight was Captain Dennis Fitch, a United pilot and training check airman, who came to the cockpit and offered Captain Haynes any help that he could provide. Captain Haynes welcomed Captain Fitch’s help.

Captain Fitch began to apply differential thrust, and that way, regained some control of the airplane. He was able to minimize the phugoid and gain some directional control, although the airplane could only turn to the right. The decision was made to make an emergency landing at the airport in Sioux City, Iowa.

The crew was able to use differential thrust alone to control the airplane’s direction of travel and descent, and line up the DC-10 with the runway. But, with no hydraulics, the flaps could not be extended. When the DC-10 was designed and approved, the total loss of hydraulic-powered flight controls was considered so unlikely that there was no need to develop and approve a procedure to deal with such a situation. Because flaps control both the minimum required airspeed and sink rate, however, the flight 232 crew could control neither.

Just prior to landing, the airplane was going 220 knots and descending at 1,850 feet per minute, well above the normal targets of 140 knots and a 300-feet-per-minute descent. As the plane touched down, the right wing tip hit the runway first, and the plane began to break up and catch fire, ultimately resulting in the fatalities of 111 people. For 184 others, Captain Haynes and his flight crew are credited with their improbable deliverance from an unlikely accident cause.

In our investigation of this accident, we pointed out that the interaction of the pilots, including the check airman, during the emergency showed the value of crew resource management (CRM – then known as cockpit resource management) training, which had been practiced at United Airlines for a decade. Ten years before the United flight 232 accident, we recommended that CRM training be required for all airline flight crews.

Flight simulator reenactments of the accident airplane’s flight profile carried out as part of our investigation revealed that it was virtually impossible to control all parameters simultaneously needed to land safely at a predetermined point. After observing the performance of a control group of DC-l0-qualified pilots in the simulator, we concluded that Captain Haynes’s damaged DC-10 airplane, although flyable, could not have been successfully landed on a runway after the loss of all hydraulic flight controls, and that, under the circumstances, United flight 232’s flightcrew reacted commendably and beyond reasonable expectations.

But the benefits of CRM training were clear. The flight crew, lead by Captain Haynes, used CRM to deal with a situation considered so unlikely that there were no procedures or training on how to respond. When talking about the accident later, Captain Haynes said, “If I hadn’t used CRM, if we had not let everybody put their input in, it’s a cinch we wouldn’t have made it.”

Although he always denied that he was a hero, Captain Haynes was the right man at the right time for an event considered to be so unlikely that it was virtually impossible. Thirty years after that accident, and mere days after Captain Haynes’s death, we at the NTSB remember how his CRM practice saved over half the people on United flight 232. Aviation is safer the world over thanks to Captain Haynes.

Safe Skies for Africa Ends, but the Safety Journey Continues

By: Nicholas Worrell, Chief, Office of Safety Advocacy

August 2019 Safe Skies for Africa symposium, Lagos, Nigeria
NTSB staff and attendees at the Safe Skies for Africa symposium in Lagos, Nigeria

After 21 years, the Safe Skies for Africa (SSFA) program officially came to an end last week at a symposium in Lagos, Nigeria. The program was established in 1998 in part to increase direct commercial air service between the United States and Africa, which was minimal at the time. Administered by the US Department of Transportation and funded by the US State Department, the SSFA program has accomplished many of its original objectives since inception, including improving the safety and security of aviation on the African continent. Over a dozen symposia and workshops have been held over the life of the program, and we organized past SSFA symposia with the South Africa Civil Aviation Authority and Kenya’s Air Accident Investigation Department. This year’s event was hosted by the Air Investigation Bureau-Nigeria (AIB-N), who also sent a team of accident investigators and industry representative to participate.

Former NTSB Managing Director (and program pioneer) Dennis Jones spent nearly 20 years in the SSFA program, participating in accident investigations, conducting workshops, helping improve accident investigation programs, and training investigators. In his opinion, the Safe Skies program has done what it was created to do. At the outset of the program, few African airlines and hardly any US airlines were flying to Africa, even though it’s the world’s second-largest continent. Today, two US carriers provide direct service to Africa, and six African countries (Egypt, Ethiopia, South Africa, Morocco, Cape Verde, and Kenya) have direct routes to the United States.

Along with increased US commercial air service to Africa, air investigation quality has improved, resulting in a lower accident rate and greater safety in commercial aviation in Africa. Many African nations now have their own accident investigation agencies, and some are even developing multimodal agencies based on the NTSB model.

We were honored to again join other NTSB communications specialists and experts, as well as former NTSB Managing Director Dennis Jones, for the final symposium. The symposium focused on the following topics:

  • The NTSB’s background and history
  • Emerging aviation safety issues
  • The investigative process and human factors
  • Accident classification and substantial damage
  • Helicopter operations
  • The challenges of providing family assistance
  • Effective safety advocacy: creating positive change in transportation safety

Our team shared lessons learned from NTSB accident investigations, as well as strategies to help our international counterparts take steps in their own aviation safety journey. The AIB-N participants were focused and receptive to our presentations, and the event was bittersweet as we parted ways with old colleagues and brought the program to a close.

Although the SSFA program has resulted in many improvements over its 21 years, more remains to be done. Safe and reliable aviation connects people all over the world, in more ways than you may realize. Aircraft components, engines, and airframes come from manufacturers all over the world. The airplanes they comprise might be flown by airlines in any country. We are all stakeholders in aviation safety, regardless of what continent we inhabit.

We look forward to more programs like SSFA that will advance international collaboration on aviation safety issues. I’m confident that new safety ambassadors will follow in the footsteps of those who participated in the SSFA program, and I look forward to working with the pioneers who participate in these programs going forward.

For our blogs on the other NTSB SSFA symposia in South Africa and Kenya, please see links below:

https://safetycompass.wordpress.com/2018/08/09/ntsb-supports-safe-skies-for-africa-initiative/

https://safetycompass.wordpress.com/2018/10/01/another-step-toward-safer-skies-in-africa/

 

Oshkosh AirVenture 2019: Raise the Bar of Your Safety Culture

By Aaron Sauer, NTSB Senior Air Safety Investigator, and Amy Terrone, NTSB Safety Advocate

Loss of control and midair accidents, drones in accident investigations, startle effects and distraction, general aviation safety trends, and survivor stories (oh my!)—these are just a few of the topics NTSB staff will present at this year’s Experimental Aircraft Association AirVenture in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The goal of our presentations is to encourage every aviator and aviation professional to raise the bar of their safety culture.

Safety culture comprises an organization’s attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and values regarding safety. It’s an idea with its roots in the safety of organizations; however, pilots have their own unique safety culture, as well, exchanging information informally about aircraft characteristics, avionics, and even en-route concerns, such as weather and notices to airmen (NOTAMs), that might affect a flight.

In fact, every organization has a culture, but not all culture is related to a formal organization. We are interested in helping pilots raise the safety culture bar within the broader aviation community. That’s why nearly 20 NTSB investigators, vehicle recorder specialists, safety advocates, and even the NTSB’s own Chairman Robert Sumwalt will be walking the AirVenture grounds daily July 22–28, sharing insights and learning from others.

Oshkosh forum series graphic

AirVenture is billed as the largest annual gathering of aviation enthusiasts in the United States, and maybe even the world. One week each summer, more than 500,000 EAA members, aviation enthusiasts, and pilots from 80 countries come to Wittman Regional Airport in Oshkosh. Attendees watch air shows and aerobatics and pyrotechnics displays, and attend educational forums, workshops, and demonstrations. In addition to those in the aviation industry, the event also draws members of the general public interested in aviation.

We’ve maintained an exhibit booth and delivered informative presentations at AirVenture for the past 15 years. In addition to presenting, NTSB investigators are always on hand to begin the on‑scene phase of an investigation if needed, because, unfortunately, at least one or two accidents occur each year as aircraft fly into the event. In fact, these fly-in accidents have led us to publish a safety alert urging pilots to keep their focus on safety while arriving at a major fly-in event like AirVenture, where there are more planes in the parking lot than cars.

This year we’ve asked some of the industry’s leading safety experts and those with unique insights to help us spread our safety culture message.

We’ll work with Patty Wagstaff, a legendary acrobatic pilot, to kick off the first day of the event with a discussion about what it means to “Raise the Bar of Your Safety Culture with Challenging Training.” Tim LeBaron, the deputy director for the NTSB Office of Aviation Safety Regional Operations, will introduce Wagstaff and offer preliminary comments on this issue.

The rest of the week will be filled with opportunities to learn more about how pilots can play their part in building a stronger safety culture. Staff will present several accident case studies that highlight pilot errors, lack of proficiency, and decisions that led to loss of control in flight. They will include a case study of a Teterboro, New Jersey, crash that illustrates our new Most Wanted List (MWL) issue area, “Improve the Safety of Part 135 Aircraft Flight Operations.”

MWL06s_Part135

We will also talk about weather challenges—a significant concern in general aviation flying—and how to manage and overcome a variety of scenarios, and we’ll share several safety alerts related to weather. Our research team will present general aviation safety trends and new statistics, and we’ll discuss distraction, a long-time MWL issue that is dramatically affected by the proliferation of technology in the cockpit.

But perhaps the most important presentations we will give are the ones that remind us of why we do what we do—that is, issue safety recommendations to prevent accidents and crashes.

We’ve also teamed up with two accident survivors to help drive our message home. These speakers will share their harrowing stories in the hopes that they can motivate other pilots to avoid the same mistakes. Dan Bass will offer the riveting story of how he survived an in-flight loss of consciousness due to a carbon monoxide leak, a serious safety concern that has prompted us to release several safety alerts on the topic. Trent Palmer and Nikk Audenried will share their story about a loss-of-control accident they experienced that was widely shared via YouTube. Preventing loss of control in flight has been featured on the NTSB MWL for several years.

If you’re attending AirVenture, plan to visit our booth in Exhibit Hangar D in the Federal Pavilion to meet investigators, touch a real-life “black box” (actually orange), and learn about our most important general aviation safety issues and our current MWL. You’ll likely find the Chairman engaging with pilots around our booth, and you can tune into EAA radio during the week for some of his key general aviation safety insights. We would certainly like to see you join us for our presentations and you can plan your itinerary by visiting https://www.ntsb.gov/news/events/Pages/2019-EAA-AirVenture-EVT.aspx.

Even if you can’t make it to AirVenture 2019, rest assured that we’re using opportunities like AirVenture throughout the year to encourage general aviation aviators and aviation professionals to raise the bar when it comes to safety.