I don’t know about you, but it seems that every day I see more and more people traveling by bicycle; whether they’re riding for exercise, taking a fun ride with family and friends, or commuting to work. It’s exciting to see a growing population using bicycles to get from place to place. People are also bicycling year-round, in all types of weather, across the United States. As someone with a background in public health, I’m glad to see that The League of American Bicyclists reports that bike riding is an increasing trend. Personally, I always look forward to participating in Bike to Work Week and Bike to Work Day each May during Bike Month.
I love my bike. It isn’t anything fancy, but it gets me where I need to go, and it was even recently featured in the New York Times. My family and I ride our bikes as often as possible. Some of my colleagues at the NTSB (you can see some of us in the photo) have been biking to work for years. Many of us are lucky to live in Bicycle Friendly Communities where it is easy to travel by bicycle around town.
The NTSB is known for investigating every civil aviation accident and significant accidents in other modes of transportation—highway, rail, pipeline, and marine. Our goal is to help people get around—in whatever form of transportation they choose—as safely as possible. One of the tools we use to achieve this goal is the “Most Wanted List” of transportation safety improvements (MWL). Although neither our investigations nor the MWL have a specific focus on bicycles, many of our recommendations and the MWL items can improve safety for bicyclists. For example, when decisions are made with the safety of all road users in mind, such as following NTSB recommendations for a safe systems approach to setting speed limits or lowering the per se BAC limit to 0.05 g/dL to prevent drinking and driving, those of us who ride bicycles are safer. Additionally, when we make roads safe for the most vulnerable users, such as people who walk and bike, everyone benefits.
I encourage anyone curious about commuting by bicycle to give it a try this Bike to Work Week. You’ll be in good company (and if you see one of us from the NTSB on our bikes, be sure to say hello). According to the League of American Bicyclists, many people who participate in the Bike to Work Day promotion for the first time become regular bike commuters! Give it a try—map your route, get your bicycle tuned up, and always remember to wear your helmet!
On April 23, I had the privilege of moderating an important roundtable discussion on preventing loss of control (LOC) in flight in general aviation (GA), the leading factor of general aviation accidents and an issue on our Most Wanted List. LOC involves the unintended departure from flight and can be caused by several factors, including distraction, complacency, weather, or poor energy management.
I can say unequivocally that the NTSB LOC roundtable event—held in our Board Room and Conference Center at our Washington, DC, headquarters and webcast live—was a resounding success. We achieved what we aimed to do: bring together leading experts in government, industry, and academia to identify training and cockpit technology solutions that could make a difference, as well as dig into the challenges of implementing these solutions.
And I was thrilled to hear that about 1,000 pilots and GA enthusiasts watched our discussion, with many receiving FAA WINGS credit.
At our event, we saw an honest, open sharing of ideas among GA safety experts, as well as a willingness to collaborate to address and overcome the challenges associated with this problem, which is the cause of nearly 40 percent of all fixed-wing general aviation crashes. The 18 industry and government participants included a NASA astronaut, a world-famous aerobatics champion and trainer, GA associations, tech companies, the Federal Aviation Administration, as well as our own investigators and Board Member Earl Weener. I was also thrilled to welcome to our roundtable two bright young minds, Thomas Baron and Justin Zhou—high school students from Virginia. Baron and Zhou (Remora Systems) won the Experimental Aircraft Association’s Founder’s Innovation Prize for a product they developed for pilots to help avoid LOC. Their fresh, Generation Z perspectives on this issue enhanced our discussions.
The NTSB’s Director of the Office of Aviation Safety John DeLisi kicked off our discussion with these experts by reminding us that more than 1,500 people have died in the last 10 years due to loss of control and that “we are here to save lives.”
Our roundtable experts—all leaders in their organizations—discussed both the challenges and solutions to reducing LOC accidents, especially in the area of training and technology. I will recap just some of their key insights:
On Training . . .
Address pilot weaknesses and skills requirements; pilots should always continue to improve their skills.
Reward pilots for additional training taken and ratings achieved, and incentivize new instructors to make sure pilots are taught correctly.
Teach students the importance of maintaining situational awareness during their initial training. The first 10 hours that new pilots spend with instructors can be some of the most important training time.
Recognize that technology is not a substitute for basic stick skills, nor should it compensate for poor training.
Incorporate more realistic scenarios into flight training regarding stalls. Ensure pilots have the confidence to do stall recovery.
Train for the startle factor so it doesn’t happen at low altitudes. The stall warning might be too late to recover.
On Technology . . .
Find a responsible role for cockpit technology; it can make a big impact on safety.
Continue to responsibly innovate.
Reduce angle of attack (AOA); this is the key to recovery. AOA indicators can help.
Continue to quickly certify new technologies in a variety of plane types.
Other ideas . . .
Use data to improve GA safety; data monitoring programs can help us standardize safety.
Establish mechanisms where industry and government can continue to collaborate to collectively find solutions.
Recognize that regulation and mandates aren’t always the answer; education and outreach may be a better approach.
Utilize pilot social networks and type clubs to learn and grow.
Get involved in working groups; study best practices and incorporate outcomes.
Be aware of the limits of the airplane; pilots should not fear the capabilities of their planes.
Change the way we do outreach. Unifying around a single topic like LOC helps.
The statistics are trending in a good direction, thanks to the FAA’s and industry’s efforts to address LOC. However, from NTSB accident investigations, we know that much more can—and should—be done to accelerate the improvements in training and technology, because one death for what is largely a preventable problem is one too many.
For more information on the LOC roundtable, including the topics covered, participant’s list, and our LOC resources, see our events page.
By Nicholas Worrell, Chief, Safety Advocacy Division
May is Global Youth Traffic Safety Month, a time where communities come together to bring more awareness to safety issues impacting teens on the road. GYTSM, which began as National Youth Traffic Safety Month, was expanded to support the United Nations’ 2007 Global Road Safety Week, because teen driving crashes are a worldwide safety problem requiring global solutions.
Last month, I had the opportunity to travel to London to address an audience concerned about young driver safety. Although the United Kingdom has far fewer road deaths per capita than the United States, the country loses more teen drivers than drivers in any other age group each year.
My hosts were interested in hearing the perspective of a US safety advocate as they consider implementing a graduated driver licensing (GDL) system. Just as the United Kingdom has much to teach us on many roadway safety topics, we have much to share about GDLs and factors that combine with them to make them even more effective. For example, in 1993, the NTSB recommended keeping young drivers off the road at certain times, particularly from midnight to 5 a.m. In 2002, we recommended that:
a supervising adult driver be 21 or older;
states that did not already have a three-stage graduated licensing system implement one; and
states with a GDL program prohibit young drivers from carrying more than one teen passenger without adult supervision.
And it wasn’t just the NTSB that was looking at GDL systems and their effect on teen drivers. By 2011, researchers associated with the National Institutes of Health found that GDL laws reduce crashes among drivers 16 and 17 years old by 8 to 14 percent. They also found GDL laws to be most effective in combination with at least five of these seven factors:
A minimum age of 16 for a learner’s permit
A mandatory waiting period of at least 6 months before a driver with a learner’s permit can apply for a provisional license
A requirement for 50 to 100 hours of supervised driving
A minimum age of 17 for a provisional license
Restrictions on driving at night
A limit on the number of teenage passengers allowed in a car
A minimum age of 18 for a full license
US states are often called “laboratories of policy.” This is a grim prospect when it comes to setting a single, high safety standard, but, as I told my hosts in London, it also allows researchers to review what works best and where we can still improve. Opportunities to share lessons learned across national borders are another important tool in combatting roadway deaths and injuries.
According to the World Health Organization, 1.25 million people die each year around the world in traffic crashes. Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among people age 15 and 24 years old. In the fight against roadway deaths and injuries, our youngest and most vulnerable drivers are counting on us to help them emerge victorious, not only during Global Youth Traffic Safety Month, but every day. Until roadways around the world are safe for them, our work will continue.
My British counterparts are committed to winning this war with us. And we agree that, as Sir Winston Churchill once said, we shall never surrender.
Some scholars play a critical role in founding a whole field of study: Sigmund Freud, in psychology. Noam Chomsky, in linguistics. Albert Einstein, in modern physics. In the field of safety, Dr. James Reason has played such a role. In this field, no single name is better known.
Dr. Reason turns 80 today, and if you’re reading this, it’s possible that you owe your life to his ideas.
NTSB reports have frequently cited Dr. Reason’s work, and I personally quote him liberally in my talks to industry and safety stakeholders.
His contributions to safety have been influential not only in transportation and workplace safety, but also in fields as varied as healthcare, nuclear power, and fraud prevention.
His books include Human Error; Organizational Accidents; Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents; Organizational Accidents Revisited; The Human Contribution: Unsafe Acts, Accidents, and Heroic Recoveries; and A Life in Error: From Little Slips to Big Disasters.
He views safety as a system, and accidents as the result of any individual’s mistakes in combination with other failings in the system. People are fallible, but that doesn’t make accidents inevitable.
Focusing on a safer system, instead of only an individual’s mistakes, can help diminish individual error (for example, through better training and procedures). More importantly, studying the system reveals much more of “what went wrong” – and will go wrong again if not corrected, because other individuals will make mistakes.
Dr. Reason came up with a handy analogy for his view, called the “Swiss Cheese Model of Accident Causation.” (Just say “Swiss Cheese Model” to a safety or risk management professional, and they’ll probably nod knowingly.)
In this model, layers of protection against an accident, each of which has weaknesses, are visualized as slices of cheese riddled with holes. An accident occurs when the weaknesses, or holes, align.
We’re all living in the Age of Reason. It’s a good age in which to live, one during which accidental deaths and injuries have been on the decline.
The continuous improvement of safety depends on safety professionals living with what Dr. Reason called a “chronic unease.” The paradox of safety is that the moment we think we’ve arrived, we introduce another hazard: complacency.
However, even in the chronically uneasy profession of safety, we find cause to celebrate every now and then. So, on that note, Happy 80th birthday to Professor Emeritus James Reason, on behalf of safety professionals everywhere—and on behalf of all those he’s saved, from every walk of life.
March is Women’s History Month, so it’s only appropriate to look at some of the American women who have helped influence and shape today’s transportation system, including those working at the NTSB today.
We have witnessed the extraordinary accomplishments of women like Bessica Raiche, the first female pilot in the United States to make a planned flight, and our very own Member Bella Dinh-Zarr, the first Asian American to become a Board Member at the NTSB. Member Dinh-Zarr has spent years advocating for and promoting safe and sustainable transportation. These women have reached great heights in their careers and are renowned nationwide for their successes.
Yet, there are many more women—perhaps not as nationally known but just as important to the NTSB’s critical mission—that we would like to recognize. In celebration of Women’s History Month, we recently sat down with some of the exceptional women who have emerged from the NTSB’s ranks to become leaders in management and safety. They inspire staff every day to work hard to improve transportation safety, sharing NTSB safety messages and encouraging us all to remember our mission to save lives. They are role models for many at the agency—men and women. We asked them to share their thoughts on leadership with staff last week at a special briefing, and we think their lessons are beneficial to all, even those outside our organization. Here’s what they had to say.
Dana Schulze is the deputy director of the NTSB’s Aviation Safety (AS) Office. As second-in-command of AS, she oversees all aviation accident and incident investigations in the United States and those involving US products or operations overseas. More than 50 air safety investigators and supporting staff within AS report directly to her. She approves information AS releases and routinely briefs Congressional staff and industry stakeholders on behalf of our agency. She began her career in the aircraft manufacturing industry as a mechanical engineer and has experience developing, manufacturing, and conducting failure investigations involving aircraft systems. From there, she rose through the NTSB ranks to her current position. She attributes her success to a continuous learning approach and her interest in improving aviation safety. Because of her critical-thinking skills and ability to lead others, she quickly rose to a leadership position at the agency.
According to Schulze, she did not initially set out to join management, but when the opportunity was offered, she recognized that she could add value and be a good fit. She believes a leader should be able to inspire and motivate others. Through integrity, consistency, and transparency, a leader “can instill a balance of vision and practicality,” she says. She says she has been inspired by thought leaders such as Steven Covey. Transportation has long been a male-dominated industry, and Schulze encourages women to get involved with transportation-related STEM programs that interest them, even those outside their comfort zones.
Sharon Bryson is the NTSB’s deputy managing director. She joined the agency more than 20 years ago after a career providing services to military families at Dover Air Force Base. When she arrived at the NTSB, the agency had just been given the responsibility for family assistance by Congress. Bryson took a lead role in setting up the NTSB’s first family assistance program. This program, now called Transportation Disaster Assistance, is still in place today and has served thousands of families over the years. Later, after serving as director of the Office of Safety Recommendations and Communications, Bryson became the agency’s deputy managing director, a position that involves assisting the Managing Director with managing the day-to-day activities of the agency.
According to Bryson, having the opportunity to mentor others and share what she has learned about leadership is very important to her. She strives daily to engage with staff members and actively highlights their individual abilities, with the goal of seeing them thrive. “A leader is supposed to support and guide,” she says. By recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of the people around her, she puts value in their diverse opinions; there is no room for judgement or negativity. “When all of these are combined, it creates an environment where people feel engaged and encouraged,” she says.
Shannon Bennett came to the NTSB’s Office of General Counsel in June 2010 before becoming an advisory and special assistant to Board Member Dinh-Zarr in June 2015. She comes from a long military history, having enlisted in 1993 as an Air Force ROTC cadet during college, then serving 11 years on active duty as a judge advocate. She continued to serve in the Air Force Reserve and was assigned as a judge advocate in the Office of The Judge Advocate General at the Pentagon. According to Bennett, when she separated from active duty in 2010, she wanted to find a job where, as in the Air Force, she felt that she was serving her country and making a difference in people’s lives. That’s how she wound up at NTSB.
Leadership is “the art of influencing and directing people to accomplish the mission,” Bennett says, quoting the Air Force Pamphlet on Leadership she received as an ROTC cadet. She tries to live by the adage “saw the log in front of you,” meaning, do your very best in every job that’s given to you no matter how big or small, rather than seek the glory of a job you don’t have. Mentoring is also very important to her, and she encourages all leaders to guide others.
As we celebrate Women’s History Month, let’s all take the time to look around us and celebrate the unique and powerful women in our own lives. We are so grateful to have Dana, Sharon, and Shannon as members of our “Women Dream Team,” as well as all the other female employees at the agency who work daily to improve transportation safety and inspire those around them.
The NTSB is releasing a series of blogs highlighting the progress the transportation community is making in each mode to advance issues on our 2017-2018 Most Wanted List. This series sheds light on the progress made and what needs to be done going forward to improve transportation safety. This is the third blog of the series.
Aviation is one of the safest forms of transportation—largely due to government-industry collaboration efforts such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team and the General Aviation Joint Steering Committee. We have seen no passenger fatality in the domestic operation of a U.S. airline (Part 121) since 2009, and the accident rate is trending slightly downward in General Aviation-GA (Part 91 and Part 125). While we celebrate the safety gains made across the commercial aviation industry, there is still work to be done across all sectors, especially in GA.
On November 15, the NTSB brought together government, industry, and advocacy representatives from the transportation safety community to get a progress report on our Most Wanted List (MWL) of transportation safety improvements. Aviation Safety Director John DeLisi and I led the aviation portion of the discussion.
Prevent loss of control in flight in general aviation
Expand recorder use to enhance safety
Ensure teh safe shipment of hazardous materials
Reduce Fatigue-Related Accidents
Strengthen occupant protection
End alcohol and other drug impairment in transportation
Require medical fitness for duty
We learned that industry is taking the lead to improve safety, and, while some Federal Aviation Administration initiatives have been helpful, more may be needed. Yet the best path to getting NTSB recommendations adopted, most agreed, was encouraging a more aggressive voluntary, collaborative approach to safety.
Our focus on preventing Loss of Control (LOC) In Flight in General Aviation (GA)—the only aviation-specific issue on the MWL—was the primary focus of our conversations. Successfully resolving this problem requires continuing collaboration, which, so far, appears to be occurring widely and effectively. The GAJSC is one organization helping to facilitate this collaborative approach. At the mid-point meeting, we also announced that the NTSB will be collaborating with the FAA, industry associations, flight schools, technology manufacturers, and others in an upcoming April 24, 2018, roundtable on LOC solutions. The number of LOC and fatal LOC accidents are both trending down as of 2016, our last complete year of data. We won’t call that progress yet, but we might look back one day and say that it was.
The changes to Part 23 of the Federal Aviation Regulations reforming small aircraft certification standards have enabled streamlined adoption and installation of new technologies, such as AOA indicators that would prevent LOC, without a lengthy and costly supplemental FAA flight certification. Private industry can now do what it does best: innovate.
We also discussed another MWL issue, Expand Recorder Use to Enhance Safety. In particular, the NTSB would like to see more cockpit cameras, which aid in accident investigations and provide useful data for developing policies/procedures to prevent accidents. However, privacy issues, data protection challenges, and fears of punitive actions by companies appear to still hinder progress in this area.
Just as we have seen tremendous benefits in crash survivability on our highways with the use of seat belts and air bags, the aviation community so too must also recognize the significant safety benefits of enhanced occupant protection systems, such as five-point shoulder harnesses. While helicopter pilots appear to be buckling up, others in GA are not—including passengers. Child restraint systems (“car seats”) should also be used in planes; yet, they widely are not. The NTSB reported at this meeting that we are collecting more data on if/how seat belts are used in our accident investigations.
Progress is being made on the carriage of lithium-ion (LI) batteries. Heat from one battery can propagate to nearby batteries before a fire breaks out, introducing a challenge for fire detection and suppression. However, we expect the FAA to complete testing related to this risk within this MWL cycle. We also await the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration actions to harmonize its regulations with the International Civil Aviation Organization’s technical instructions regarding segregating lithium batteries carried as air cargo from other flammable cargo.
Just before the beginning of this MWL cycle, in 2016, the new flight and duty regulation went into effect, a huge win for managing fatigue in commercial aviation. We continue to fight for the small wins. We still need to apply the same level of safety to cargo flights, but we have seen progress toward applying it to maintenance personnel.
And, in 2017, the FAA communicated that they’ll research the prevalence of impairing drug use – OTC, illicit, and prescription – throughout aviation. Previously, we had studied their presence in pilots in fatal accidents, which revealed an alarming rate of OTC use in fatal accidents. It may be too early to discuss any changes to medical fitness in aviation due to BasicMed. However, one of the related concerns is the loss of flight time data that we previously gathered as part of the medical certification process.
After our progress report meeting, I felt optimistic that the improvements being made, especially by industry, will serve to make aviation even safer. I encourage all stakeholders and the general flying public to consider areas where we still need to make progress. Everyone has a role to play in improving aviation safety—whether you are a pilot, an operator, or sitting in the seats.
The NTSB is releasing a series of blogs highlighting the progress the transportation community is making in each mode to advance issues on our 2017–2018 Most Wanted List. This series sheds light on the progress made and what needs to be done going forward to improve transportation safety. This is the second post of the series.
We’re now midway through the 2017–2018 Most Wanted List cycle, and we’re eager to learn how this year will measure up to previous years. The past 2 years have resulted in an increase in highway traffic fatalities—from 32,000 roadway deaths per year in 2014 to more than 37,000 in 2016—so clearly, improvements are vital. We checked in with stakeholders on the progress they’re making to address the most pressing issues, and they’ve updated us on their successes and struggles. Here’s where we stand.
Reduce Fatigue-Related Accidents
Expand recorder use to enhance safety
Strengthen occupant protection
End alcohol and other drug impairment in transportation
Require medical fitness for duty
Install Collision Avoidance Technologies
Collision avoidance technologies can reduce the number of deaths and injuries on the nation’s roadways now. Today, automatic emergency braking (AEB) and forward collision warning systems already work to reduce rear-end crashes in equipped vehicles, and we’ve been working to encourage industry and vehicle manufacturers to adopt such systems. In 2017, we cohosted a roundtable with the National Safety Council on commercial vehicle (heavy-duty truck) use of advanced collision avoidance technologies and learned that truck manufacturers are beginning to see high customer demand for forward collision avoidance systems on their trucks. During the roundtable, one manufacturer indicated they were making the technologies standard on their trucks, while another mentioned that over 60 percent of their customers purchase vehicles with technology. In addition, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is making progress on evaluation and testing collision avoidance technologies. We continue to advocate for connected vehicle technology because these technologies can further aid in collision avoidance, especially in situations where vehicle resident sensors are weak. Safety should never be considered a barrier to innovation, but rather, an integral component of it.
End Impairment in Transportation
In 2017, we saw progress on reducing alcohol impairment in transportation. Utah became the first state in the nation to pass a law setting a .05 percent blood alcohol content per se limit, and Nebraska and Oklahoma passed all-offender ignition interlock laws. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) published a final rule establishing the Commercial Driver’s License Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse, and NHTSA developed training programs addressing the full range of responses to alcohol impairment, from enforcement through adjudication. Yet, we still need more states to strengthen their impaired driving laws and enforcement. We also need improved “place of last drink” (POLD) data to help law enforcement officers deter future violations, and we need better methods to measure impairment by drugs other than alcohol.
Require Medical Fitness, Reduce Fatigue-Related Accidents
In terms of medical fitness, we’ve criticized both the FMCSA and the Federal Railroad Administration because they have withdrawn their advance notice of proposed rulemaking regarding obstructive sleep apnea, which could have led to a rulemaking to address this important issue for people in safety-critical positions. In the highway mode, untreated moderate‑to-severe sleep apnea disqualifies drivers from operating large commercial vehicles because it affects driving safety, yet clear guidance is needed to assist medical examiners in identifying the condition. Nevertheless, the FMCSA has made notable progress by developing a National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners that lists all medical professionals who are qualified to certify drivers. This is a step in the right direction.
The FMCSA took another important step to improve safety when it implemented the electronic logging device (ELD) rule in December 2017. The rule requires the use of technology to automatically track driving and duty time. The NTSB advocated for such devices for many years because they enable better enforcement of hours-of-service regulations and can lead to reductions in drowsy driving among truck and bus drivers.
Our roundtable earlier this year, “Act to End Deadly Distractions,” brought together survivor advocates and experts throughout industry and government to discuss progress on state laws. We are beginning to see states consider legislation that would completely ban the use of hand-held devices, which highlight manual and visual distraction, but public awareness of the cognitive distraction that can result from hands-free device use remains very low.
Strengthen Occupant Protection
The good news this year on occupant protection is that motorcoaches are now built with lap and shoulder belts for all passenger seating positions. Now we’re focusing on all motorcoach passengers properly using those belts and using them every time they ride. We are urging primary enforcement of seat belt laws for all vehicles, including large buses equipped with belts, at every seating position, and we’re calling for safety briefings on motorcoaches similar to those delivered on commercial flights that explain seat belts and other safety features. As for passenger vehicles, some states, such as Massachusetts and New Hampshire, are considering joining the 34 states that already have primary enforcement of mandatory seat belt laws. Primary enforcement of mandatory seat belt laws is proven to increase seat belt use and, thereby, reduce the number of deaths and injuries on the roads. Regarding motorcycles, we are concerned that some states are repealing their helmet laws, because we know reduced helmet use will lead to more traumatic brain injuries and deaths.
Critical topics that touch on these highway safety issues are speeding and roadway infrastructure. Our recent safety study on speeding establishes what many of us already know but may not always apply: speeding increases the risk and severity of a crash. Here again, along with other safety recommendations, we’ve identified available technologies that can save lives but are not currently in use. The importance of infrastructure was highlighted recently by our highway accident report on a motorcoach collision that killed 2 people and injured 14 others. An unrepaired crash attenuator, an unmarked gore area, and out-of-compliance signage were cited in the report, in addition to the lack of seat belt use by most of the occupants.
Expand Recorder Use
Finally, we continue to urge all large highway vehicles be required to be equipped with recorders that capture a standard set of parameters. Event data recorders are vital investigative tools in every transportation mode—they help us do our job better and faster by providing valuable information after a crash so we can figure out what went wrong and make recommendations that prevent future injuries and deaths. Unfortunately, in crashes involving large trucks or buses, we are often left with limited data from the vehicle about the crash. We learn much more from passenger vehicles in crashes than from trucks and buses because of the standards NHTSA has developed (no such standards exist for trucks or buses). These standards are critical for large-vehicle operators, who can use recorders to train their drivers and increase safety.
The Most Wanted List midpoint mark allows us to reflect as well as plan and set new goals for the upcoming year. Although we have a long way to go to reach zero fatalities on our roadways, the efforts highlighted above, innovative partnerships and strategies, and bold actions to advance our recommendations are what we need to make America’s roadways fatality-free.
Dr. Robert Molloy is the Director of the NTSB’s Office of Highway Safety.