Category Archives: Drowsy Driving

How Employers Can Make Our Roads Safer

By Member T. Bella Dinh-Zarr, PhD, MPH 

“Safety should not be a competitive advantage.”

That’s the message I keep in mind every time I visit groups that represent employers, like the Network of Employers for Transportation Safety (NETS) which focuses on highway safety, or when I meet with the executives at individual companies, who may use many different modes of transportation for their businesses.

The NTSB is a unique federal agency because we are completely independent. Our agency has one simple but noble purpose: to prevent transportation-related deaths and injuries. We are on call 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, to investigate accidents, assist victims’ families, develop factual records, and recommend changes to make transportation safer. Unlike many government agencies, the NTSB has no regulatory authority, and we have no financial incentives to promote our safety recommendations. Our daily decision-making is guided by our values of integrity, transparency, independence, and excellence. We undertake investigations and make recommendations for the sole purpose of preventing future transportation disasters.

CMVSInfographicEmployers are uniquely positioned to meaningfully advance the recommendations that we make at the NTSB.  Over the years, we’ve issued over 14,000 safety recommendations to over 2,300 recipients, many of which are employers or groups that represent them. We know that if employers voluntarily implement our recommendations, our transportation system will be much safer. We’ve issued business-relevant recommendations related to installing recorder technology, developing fatigue management plans, requiring medical fitness, and many more—most of which are on our Most Wanted List (MWL).

Employers have a responsibility to address transportation safety. Nowhere is this more evident than for employers with vehicle fleets.  Many employers develop policies and procedures to keep their staff safe on the roads because they know that motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among workers in the United States. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, from 2003–2015, there were more than 23,000 work-related motor vehicle deaths in the United States. The issues on our MWL, if addressed by employers, can help reduce this unfortunate statistic.

One way employers have helped advance safety—and can continue to do so—is by promoting evidence-based interventions like lowering the illegal BAC (blood alcohol concentration) to .05 (g/dL) or lower and implementing primary seat belt laws in the communities they serve. More than 10,000 people die in alcohol-related crashes every year. We’ve recently received attention because of our efforts to end impaired driving and our recommendation to change BAC laws from .08 to .05 BAC or lower. Many peer-reviewed studies have shown that such a law would prevent impaired‑driving crashes. While commercial drivers already are required to comply with a .04 BAC limit, employers can be an important influence in the lives of their employees, as well as in the communities in which they operate, by educating their employees and spreading the word about the effectiveness of a .05 BAC law.

Safety-conscious employers were some of the first and most vocal supporters of preventing distracted driving, long before distraction was a popular topic. Good companies didn’t just talk about distracted driving, they took action—as I’ve seen firsthand—to educate their employees and to change polices to prevent distracted driving.

American companies with large fleets also have been some of the most vocal supporters of the UN Decade of Action for Road Safety. They have worked hard to support international road safety, and have contributed to nontraditional traffic safety efforts, like helmet campaigns and infrastructure programs that improve the road environment, especially around schools.

Employers should also consider bringing vehicles with collision avoidance technology into their company fleets. Systems such as collision warning and automatic emergency braking help keep drivers safe by mitigating or even preventing crashes. Employers could install onboard vehicle monitoring systems and recording devices, such as cameras, to help monitor driving activity and unsafe practices. These technologies require an investment, but that investment will go a long way toward reducing insurance and workers’ compensation costs—and ultimately toward preventing injuries and saving lives.

There are many employers already considering and incorporating these technologies to improve safety; however, the more who join these industry leaders, the more lives will be saved. We can’t overstate the influence employers have, not just on their employees, but on their employees’ families and on their entire communities. Employer support of safety initiatives can be far-reaching. Companies that make safety a priority tend to have employees who make safety a priority. What employees learn about safety—whether related to distracted, impaired, or fatigued driving, or the value of collision avoidance technologies in vehicles—goes home to their families and spreads beyond to the entire community. Employers already have made a positive difference in many areas of traffic safety and employers will be vital to the effort to achieve zero deaths on our roads.

 

For more information on motor vehicle safety at work, visit the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health website: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/motorvehicle/resources/crashdata/facts.html

 

 

 

Why Teen Driver Safety Week Should be Every Week

By: Nicholas Worrell, Chief, NTSB Safety Advocacy Division

Driving is a privilege that gives us the freedom to go where we want, when we want, with whom we want. The benefits of driving are especially attractive to teenagers. Driving is a milestone for teens, but with great power and freedom comes great responsibility.

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teenagers; more teens die in crashes than from drug/alcohol abuse, violence, or disease. In 2016, more than 3,600 teenagers died on our highways, a 4 percent increase from 2015. To address these tragic statistics, the third week of October was designated by Congress as National Teen Driver Safety Week. During this week, advocates, government agencies, communities, and educators aim to promote teen driver safety and eliminate a preventable tragic problem. Especially during this week, we all need to come together to keep simple mistakes from impacting the future of our country.

Today, the NTSB joined the National Organizations for Youth Safety (NOYS) and students from Maryland and Virginia high schools for NOYS’ Youth Interactive Traffic Safety Lab. The event provided hands-on activities for students to learn about a variety of driving safety issues—from auto maintenance and work zone navigation to distracted and impaired driving. Traffic safety experts and community leaders spoke with students about what it means to be a “responsible” driver and the very real consequences of complacency. In a pre-event press conference, NTSB’s Kris Poland, PhD; Maryland’s First Lady Yumi Hogan; Maryland Motor Vehicle Administrator Christine Nizer; and NOYS Interim Executive Director April Rai reminded teens that, while motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens, these crashes are preventable. One key message to teens: you have the power to change this reality.

Students also had the opportunity to talk with NTSB investigators and safety advocates to learn about our crash investigations and the safety recommendations we’ve made to improve safety for all road users—especially our recommendations for preventing teen driving crashes and their resulting injuries and deaths.

While events like the NOYS Safety Lab helps to arm students with some of the tools needed to make the right choice, we need the help of parents, other influencing adults, school officials, local government, and community leaders to help make the biggest impact. Parents, in particular, play a critical role. They should have a meaningful discussion with their new driver about the key components of driving and the thinking behind certain driving decisions. Parents must take time to outline the risks associated with driving, such as distractions, fatigue (due either from lack of sleep or fatiguing medications), other impairments, and speeding. Sometimes, making safety a priority requires establishing new priorities in the household and a shift in “family culture.” The best way to promote safety is to practice safety and treat it seriously through education, discussion, and role modeling.

 At the NTSB, we strive every day to advocate safety in the many modes of transportation. Our Most Wanted List of transportation safety improvements is designed to address our most critical safety issues. We are successful when people engage, learn strategies to improve the lives of themselves and those around them, and execute these strategies to save lives and prevent injuries. I urge you to become an advocate—not only this week, but every week—for driving safely.

 

If you have any questions about teen driving or NTSB advocacy activities in this area, email SafetyAdvocacy@NTSB.gov. We also encourage you to follow us on Twitter @NTSB and Facebook and Instagram @NTSBgov.

 

 

Back-to-School Tips for Teen Drivers

By Stephanie Shaw

It’s hard to think of back-to-school season as anything other than an exciting new beginning. A new school year means new opportunities to learn, grow, and gain some independence; it’s also a new chance to make safe and healthy choices on and off the roads. The choices you make to achieve optimal health and safety can be simple—small changes to your everyday routine can create the greatest impact!

Guarantee a safe start to the school year by adopting a safety strategy that ensures you are rested, informed, and protected on and off the road. We’ve created some strategy tips for you that will contribute to a safe and healthy school year.

  1. Ride the school bus as often as possible.

Did you know that students are 70 times more likely to get to school safely when taking the school bus than when traveling by car? The school bus is the safest method for getting to and from school and, when possible, it should be your preferred method of transportation. Before stepping foot on your journey to the bus stop, refresh your knowledge of safe school bus practices. Sit facing forward in your seat when the vehicle is in motion, buckle up if the bus is equipped with seat belts, and be aware of traffic on the roads when it’s time to hop off.

  1. Get 8 to 10 hours of sleep every night.

Although extracurriculars are important, don’t forget to factor sleep into your schedule after the school day is over. Research shows that teens should get between 8 and 10 hours of sleep each night to guarantee they feel rested and refreshed for school in the morning. Make sleep a top priority on your schedule! Be sure to set bedtimes and stick to them. Checking your cellphone, watching television, and searching the Web on your laptop disturbs your sleep patterns and contributes to insufficient or interrupted sleep. If good grades and great school days are something you hope to achieve this school year, uninterrupted, quality sleep is key.

  1. Avoid all distraction on your morning and afternoon commute.

If you drive to and from school, remember that driving safely requires all your attention. Between 2014 and 2015, fatalities in distracted-driving–affected crashes increased by over 8%. Send your text messages, make phone calls, set your music playlist, and mute your cellphone before you put the key in the ignition. It’s also important to keep your morning routine activities in the house and off the road. Eat breakfast at the table, not in the driver’s seat, and put your makeup on in the bathroom mirror, not the rearview mirror. To reduce crashes, injuries, and deaths, you must disconnect from all distractions and focus all your attention on the road.

  1. Limit the number of passengers in the car on your way to and from school.

Extra passengers in the car create distractions. Driving with friends significantly increases the risk of a crash, which is why it’s important to limit the amount of people in your car as much as possible. Statistically, two or more peer passengers more than triples the risk of a fatal crash when a teen is at the wheel. You may become distracted by your peers’ conversations or actions in the car, and you may also be influenced to engage in risky driving behaviors when you know you’re being observed by others. Avoid driving with extra passengers, and you’ll avoid an extra distraction on the road.

Just a few simple changes to your daily routine can create a safer environment for you and your peers. Not only will these small changes help you achieve and succeed this coming school year, but you’ll also be creating safer roads for your family, friends, and community.

More Resources:

DriveitHOME

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

National Organizations for Youth Safety (NOYS)

Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD)

Keeps Kids Alive DRIVE 25

Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

Governors Highway Safety Association

Impact Teen Drivers

 

Stephanie Shaw is a Safety Advocate in the NTSB Office of Safety Recommendations and Communications.

Teens and “Sleep Debt”

By: Dr. Jana Price

(This blog is also featured on NOYS.org.)

As young people’s schedules become busier and busier, it’s easy for sleep to fall off their priority list. Getting plenty of sleep helps youth complete tasks more efficiently, think clearly and creatively all day long, and stay alert while driving.

Although people generally recognize that sleep plays a significant role in ensuring they’re safe behind the wheel, many still admit to driving while fatigued. A recent AAA Foundation study found that 96 percent of drivers consider fatigued driving to be a serious threat and unacceptable behavior; however, nearly 3 in 10 of these same drivers admitted to driving drowsy. We believe that young drivers can avoid drowsiness if they better understand the importance of sleep, a sleep routine, and sleep debt.

Sleep is necessary for health, safety, and well-being. It helps the brain prepare for the upcoming day and allows new neural pathways to form that improve learning and memory. How much sleep do young drivers need? According to the National Sleep Foundation, teens ages 14 to 17 need 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night.

When people don’t get enough quality sleep, they begin to accumulate “sleep debt.” This can result from a late night of studying, getting up early for sports practice, or fragmenting sleep by using a cell phone during the night. Sleep debt accumulates over time and, ultimately, can affect a person’s ability to think and perform, negatively affecting tasks like driving. Sleep debt is also linked to high-risk behaviors, such as texting while driving, drinking and driving, and not wearing a seatbelt.

At the NTSB, we have witnessed the effects of unpaid sleep debt on teen drivers. On March 20, 2016, four teens were traveling home from a weekend trip at South Padre Island, Texas. About 1:57 p.m., the driver crossed the center median, lost control of the car, entered the opposing lanes of traffic, and collided with a truck-tractor semitrailer. The driver was seriously injured and her three passengers died. NTSB investigators learned that, in the 24 hours before the crash, the driver had very little opportunity for sleep: only about 5 hours on the morning of the crash. The crash also happened at a time of day when most people commonly experience a dip in alertness and performance; in fact, the three passengers in the car were all either asleep or dozing at the time of the crash. We determined that that the driver’s loss of control was due to inattention resulting from her fatigue.

What can teens do to reduce their risk of falling asleep behind the wheel? It’s important that youth get 8 to 10 hours of sleep each night to be rested and rejuvenated. They should resolve to create a good sleep environment, which includes maintaining a regular sleep schedule and keeping screens out of the bedroom. If a teen has built up a sleep debt by skimping on rest, he or she can pay it back by getting a good night’s sleep for several days in a row. Finally, teens should avoid driving during the night and early morning hours when sleep typically occurs.

As teens begin to plan their upcoming school schedules and enjoy their final weeks of summer vacation, they should make sure sleep and relaxation find a prominent place on their priority list. By encouraging youth to stay out of sleep debt, we can guarantee safer and more alert young drivers behind the wheel.

To learn more about this critical problem and how to help prevent teen drowsy driving crashes, join us for our Wake Up to Teen Drowsy Driving: Don’t Send Them Back to School in ‘Debt’ webinar.  To register for the webinar: https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/2417579063773167107

 

Jana Price, PhD, is a Senior Human Performance Investigator in the NTSB Office of Highway Safety.

 

 

 

The Best Days of Their Lives

By: Stephanie Shaw

The school year has come to an end and summer vacation is in full swing! For many young people, summer vacation means summer jobs, trips away from home, and late nights with friends. It also means more time behind the wheel. As we embrace the excitement and freedom of summer, it’s also important to recognize that, for teens, it’s the beginning of the “100 Deadliest Days”—the driving season in which crashes involving teens ages 16 to 19 years old increase significantly. Youth drivers are getting behind the wheel with cellphones in hand or drowsy from long, summer nights.

Our Most Wanted List strives to end alcohol and other drug impairment, distraction, and fatigue‑related accidents, and calls for stronger occupant protection; during the 100 Deadliest Days, young drivers are often faced with many of the challenges included on the Most Wanted List, which makes the collaboration between the NTSB and youth‑serving organizations so vital.

It is imperative to engage in conversations with the young people who travel our roadways and discuss unsafe driving behaviors that could potentially impact their travels. Peer-to-peer programs have the power to influence meaningful change; youth are more likely to listen to and follow the example of their peers. We use our expertise in traffic safety and safety advocacy to enhance youth leaders’ traffic safety knowledge and support the work of peer-to-peer organizations dedicated to keeping youth safe on the roads. For example, we recently attended the Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD) National Conference and the Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) National Leadership Conference to inform young people about common driving dangers and discuss safe driving behaviors.

At the SADD Conference, youth leaders from across the United States gained valuable knowledge about safety advocacy and effective techniques for influencing policy in schools, communities, and states. At the FCCLA Conference, over 150 young leaders and advisors filled our session on drowsy driving, eager to gain a comprehensive understanding of sleep and drowsy driving. At both conferences, youth and advisors talked with us and shared what they were doing in their communities and schools to prevent their peers from making decisions that could end their lives. Many who

FCCLA students and advisors attend the Wake Up! 2 Drowsy Driving session at the 2017 National Leadership Conference

spoke with us were simply inspired to help others and to make a difference, but others’ concerns were much more personal. Countless youth stopped by and shared stories of the tragedies that led them to take action—classmates, friends, sisters, fathers who had been killed in drowsy, impaired, and distracted driving crashes. Friends killed and permanently injured because they weren’t wearing their seat belts when they were involved in a crash. Mothers sharing stories of their children killed in crashes so that no other family would have to experience the same loss.

One of the most effective methods for creating positive change in young peoples’ lives is to empower them to address the safety issues facing their schools, communities, and states. SADD and the FCCLA provide youth with the leadership skills, safety knowledge, and programming to collaborate with their peers and influence safe driving behaviors for future generations. To make our roads safer and reduce traffic fatalities, youth must use their voices to speak up, advocate for causes they care deeply about,

Students work together to develop advocacy campaigns during the Developing Future Safety Advocates workshop at the 2017 SADD National Conference

and create change in their peers’ lives by setting a positive example. The knowledge gained from experiences like the SADD Conference and the FCCLA Conference allows youth to identify and advocate for the solutions that will prevent teen deaths.

As youth entered the opening session of the SADD Conference, they were greeted by the song lyrics “This is gonna be the best day of my life.” For far too many youth, their lives will be cut short because of a crash during these 100 Deadliest Days. This summer, we encourage you to talk with the young people in your life to ensure that the best days of their life don’t end this summer.

Stephanie Shaw is a Safety Advocate in the NTSB Office of Safety Recommendations and Communications

What’s your teen’s sleep routine?

By Stephanie Shaw

Sleep Duration RecommendationsIf you’ve spent any time with parents of infants or toddlers, you know that their lives likely revolve around the napping and bedtime schedule of their child. During those early years of life, caregivers make their children’s sleep a priority. We have special nighttime routines to ensure that young kids are relaxed and ready for a restful night’s sleep. Some of us even celebrate as if we’ve just won the lottery when our kids finally sleep through the night.

But as our children get older, getting a full night’s sleep just isn’t the priority it once was—for us or for them. Years pass, and before we know it, that small child is suddenly a teen. But that teen still has special sleep needs on top of a greater exposure to risk.

On March 20, 2016, four teens were traveling home from a weekend trip at South Padre Island, Texas. At about 1:57 pm, the driver lost control of the car, crossed the center median, entered the opposing lanes of traffic, and collided with a truck-tractor semitrailer. The driver was seriously injured and her three friends died.

NTSB investigators learned that, in the 24 hours before the crash, the driver had very little opportunity for sleep: only about 5 hours on the morning of the crash. The crash also happened at a time of day when most people commonly experience a dip in alertness and performance; in fact, the three passengers in the car were all either asleep or dozing at the time of the crash. The Board determined that that the driver’s loss of control was due to inattention resulting from her fatigue.

Young drivers (ages 16 to 24) are at the greatest risk for being involved in a drowsy driving crash. Teens need 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night. A recent AAA Foundation study looking at drivers of all ages found that losing just 2 to 3 hours of sleep in one night can significantly elevate crash risk. Attention, reaction time, and decision-making can all be affected. For teens, getting 7 or fewer hours of sleep increases the likelihood that they will engage in high-risk behaviors, like not wearing a seat belt or drinking and driving.

When my son was a teen driver, I made sure to talk to him about the dangers of underage drinking, driving distracted, and driving with his friends in the car. I reminded him often to wear his seatbelt—his best defense in the event of a crash. But I never talked to him about the dangers of drowsy driving. Like most high school students, he had a full schedule—early mornings for class, practice or games every day after school, homework and studying. And that didn’t include the time he spent with friends. Time for sleep was not high on his list of priorities.

In our 24/7 culture, many parents also fail to make sleep a priority, but let’s take the time to teach our teens to prioritize it! It’s important that teens get 8 to 10 hours of good-quality sleep; so, just like when they were little, help them create a good sleep environment, free from electronic devices. Talk with teens about planning for a safe ride to and from school and activities if they have a late night studying or an early-morning event to get to.

As our teens inch closer and closer to adulthood, avoiding drowsy driving is one more life lesson we can instill in them so that they remain safe until they are out on their own—and beyond.

Stephanie Shaw is a Safety Advocate in the NTSB Office of Safety Recommendations and Communications.