Category Archives: General Safety

Disconnect this Thanksgiving

By Chairman Robert L. Sumwalt

Before the roads become packed with young adults returning from college, out-of-town visitors arriving, and last-minute trips to the store for that missing item in Aunt Ida’s stuffing, I wanted to get in a few words about focusing on the drive this Thanksgiving.

If you’re driving, put down the phone. Better yet, put it in the glove compartment, or, if you’re driving with others, hand the phone over to someone you trust.

There’s still time before you get on the road to make arrangements; you don’t have to try to settle things while you drive. If you’re driving home from college, make sure that your parents know to leave a message if they call because you’re not answering the phone while driving. And say your goodbyes to your peers at school and not while you drive. Let your friends know in advance that the driver is out of contact until the drive is over, end of story. No texts, no tweets, no e-mails, no calls.

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Chairman Sumwalt talks with survivor advocates at the Act to End Deadly Distractions roundtable 

For you parents: As a parent myself, I know how much we worry. But don’t call your children while they’re driving. Distracting them from the driving task can cause far more heartache than not knowing exactly where they are and how they’re getting along.

Back on the home front: If you need to call back to your house to see if you forgot to stock up on something for the guests, do it from the store parking lot. If you’re a guest on the way and you need to tell your hosts your progress, do it from a rest area.

Thanksgiving is a joyous American holiday, and it kicks off our festive holiday season. While we’re gathering with friends and family to give thanks for all we’ve got, let’s not open ourselves up to a terrible loss.

Mom, dad, kids, sis, boyfriend, girlfriend, fiancée, spouse, buddy… I won’t take your call and I won’t answer your text while I’m on the road. Our connection doesn’t depend on our tweets, text messages, photos, or phone conversations while driving; it’s in our hearts, not our heart emojis. It’s far better to lose the electronic representation of a loved one for a few minutes or hours than to lose a loved one—or cause somebody else to lose a loved one—forever.

Last April, StopDistractions.org, Drive Smart VA, and the National Safety Council worked with the NTSB to present a roundtable, “Act to End Deadly Distractions.” The roundtable brought together survivor advocates with other experts to tell their stories and share tools they’re using in their fight against distracted driving. Some of the survivor advocates at this roundtable will see empty seats this year at the Thanksgiving table. As one of the participants put it, “this isn’t a club any of us wanted to be in. We don’t want to be here; we want to be home with our loved ones . . . that was taken from us.”

Thousands of people “join the club” of distracted driving survivors or victims every year. But this Thanksgiving, we can all act to lower this number and get home safely to our loved ones by disconnecting while we’re driving.

Click on the link to see a few moments from the “Act to End Deadly Distractions” roundtable (just not while you’re driving).

 

Travelers, Put Safety First this Holiday Season

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By Chairman Robert L. Sumwalt

At the NTSB, we’ve investigated many tragic transportation accidents that could have been prevented with some planning, forethought, and good decision making. As we mark the beginning of the holiday travel season, we want to encourage all Americans to make it their goal to arrive safely at their destinations, so we’ve boiled down some lessons we’ve learned that the traveling public can use.

By Car

Fatigue, impairment by alcohol and other drugs, and distraction continue to play major roles in highway crashes. Here’s what you can do:

  • If your holiday celebrations involve alcohol, ask a friend or family member to be your designated driver, or call a taxi or ridesharing service.
  • In a crash, seat belts (and proper child restraints) are your best protection. Always make sure that you and all your passengers are buckled up or buckled in!
  • Make sure to use the right restraint for child passengers, and be sure it’s installed correctly. If you have doubts, ask a Certified Child Passenger Safety Technician.
  • Make sure you’re well rested! A fatigued driver is just as dangerous as one impaired by alcohol or other drugs.
  • Avoid distractions. In this newly released video, survivor-advocates share their stories of personal loss—and the changes they’re working for now: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jNYECrlzGU&feature=youtube.
  • Don’t take or make calls while driving, even using a hands-free device. Set your navigation system before you start driving. If you’re traveling with others, ask them to navigate.

By Bus or Train

The NTSB has made recommendations to improve passenger rail and motorcoach operations and vehicle crashworthiness, but travelers should know what to do in an emergency.

  • Pay attention to safety briefings and know where the nearest emergency exit is. If it’s a window or roof hatch, make sure you know how to use it.
  • If you’re unsure of where the exits are or how to use them, or if you didn’t receive a safety briefing, ask your driver or the train conductor to brief you.
  • Always use restraints when they’re available!

 By Air or Sea

Airline and water travel have become incredibly safe, but these tips can help keep you and your loved ones safe in an emergency.

  • When flying, make sure that you and your traveling companions have your own seats—even children under age 2.
  • Don’t forget your child’s car seat. The label will usually tell you whether your child car seat is certified for airplane use; the owner’s manual always has this information.
  • If you don’t know the rules for using a child’s car seat on your flight, call the airline and ask what you need to know.
  • Pay close attention to the safety briefing! Airline and marine accidents have become very rare, but you and your family can be safer by being prepared.
  • Whether you’re on an airplane or a boat, know where to find the nearest flotation device.

No matter how you travel, you deserve the benefits of the lessons we’ve learned through our investigations, but you need to play an active part to take advantage of them. This holiday season, make a commitment to put safety first.

 

Thank You for Your Service  

By Nicholas Worrell, Chief, NTSB Safety Advocacy Division

As we honor our veterans this week, I’d first like to acknowledge the many veterans who continue to serve the public here at the NTSB. Thank you for your service. I, too, began my public service in the armed forces as a member of the US Marine Corps. Like many of my NTSB colleagues, my focus then was—and remains—protecting American lives.

And to all American veterans, on behalf of the whole NTSB, thank you for your service. You were ready to stand your post and, if necessary, engage the enemy to protect your country.

A little more than a year ago, I had an opportunity to speak to sailors aboard the USS George Washington about road safety, which, I’ll admit, sounds strange. After all, why do sailors aboard a ship need to hear about road safety? The answer is because today’s military is working hard to stop an epidemic of vehicle crash deaths among its personnel, both off and on duty. For many years, the number of active duty personnel dying in crashes on our roads rivaled the number dying in our wars. Adding in American civilians, we lose over 37,000 Americans on our roads each year. Unintentional roadway injuries are the most likely cause of death for Americans, from childhood through middle age.

USS Washington
Nicholas Worrell talks with sailors about the USS George Washington

On the George Washington, I urged active duty personnel to “stay frosty” (alert) on US roads because, to me, something that kills tens of thousands of Americans a year must be seen as an enemy. This enemy’s three favorite tactics are impairment, distraction, and fatigue. Using the values drilled into me as a Marine—honor, courage, and commitment—I’m working to encourage others to counter these enemy tactics. I’m teaching my fellow citizens that it’s not okay to drink a six‑pack and get on your bike. It’s not okay to take phone calls—handheld or handsfree—while you’re behind the wheel. It’s not okay to drive without any sleep. If you do, you’re as good as collaborating with the enemy.

Body armor and up-armored vehicles keep soldiers and Marines safer, even when they’re in harm’s way. But what keeps you safe from the enemy on the roads at home?

A full FMVSS-218–compliant helmet.

Consistent use of your restraints.

Age-appropriate child car seats.

This is your body armor on the roads; your up-armor for your POV.

For many of us who have transitioned out of the military, our service values still drive us. We know that if there’s an enemy afoot, we are called to confront it. And, for Americans who never wore the uniform, improving road safety can be your chance to serve our country.

This Veterans Day, let’s thank our veterans by keeping each other safe on the roads that they served to defend.

Why Teen Driver Safety Week Should be Every Week

By: Nicholas Worrell, Chief, NTSB Safety Advocacy Division

Driving is a privilege that gives us the freedom to go where we want, when we want, with whom we want. The benefits of driving are especially attractive to teenagers. Driving is a milestone for teens, but with great power and freedom comes great responsibility.

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teenagers; more teens die in crashes than from drug/alcohol abuse, violence, or disease. In 2016, more than 3,600 teenagers died on our highways, a 4 percent increase from 2015. To address these tragic statistics, the third week of October was designated by Congress as National Teen Driver Safety Week. During this week, advocates, government agencies, communities, and educators aim to promote teen driver safety and eliminate a preventable tragic problem. Especially during this week, we all need to come together to keep simple mistakes from impacting the future of our country.

Today, the NTSB joined the National Organizations for Youth Safety (NOYS) and students from Maryland and Virginia high schools for NOYS’ Youth Interactive Traffic Safety Lab. The event provided hands-on activities for students to learn about a variety of driving safety issues—from auto maintenance and work zone navigation to distracted and impaired driving. Traffic safety experts and community leaders spoke with students about what it means to be a “responsible” driver and the very real consequences of complacency. In a pre-event press conference, NTSB’s Kris Poland, PhD; Maryland’s First Lady Yumi Hogan; Maryland Motor Vehicle Administrator Christine Nizer; and NOYS Interim Executive Director April Rai reminded teens that, while motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens, these crashes are preventable. One key message to teens: you have the power to change this reality.

Students also had the opportunity to talk with NTSB investigators and safety advocates to learn about our crash investigations and the safety recommendations we’ve made to improve safety for all road users—especially our recommendations for preventing teen driving crashes and their resulting injuries and deaths.

While events like the NOYS Safety Lab helps to arm students with some of the tools needed to make the right choice, we need the help of parents, other influencing adults, school officials, local government, and community leaders to help make the biggest impact. Parents, in particular, play a critical role. They should have a meaningful discussion with their new driver about the key components of driving and the thinking behind certain driving decisions. Parents must take time to outline the risks associated with driving, such as distractions, fatigue (due either from lack of sleep or fatiguing medications), other impairments, and speeding. Sometimes, making safety a priority requires establishing new priorities in the household and a shift in “family culture.” The best way to promote safety is to practice safety and treat it seriously through education, discussion, and role modeling.

 At the NTSB, we strive every day to advocate safety in the many modes of transportation. Our Most Wanted List of transportation safety improvements is designed to address our most critical safety issues. We are successful when people engage, learn strategies to improve the lives of themselves and those around them, and execute these strategies to save lives and prevent injuries. I urge you to become an advocate—not only this week, but every week—for driving safely.

 

If you have any questions about teen driving or NTSB advocacy activities in this area, email SafetyAdvocacy@NTSB.gov. We also encourage you to follow us on Twitter @NTSB and Facebook and Instagram @NTSBgov.

 

 

International Advocacy to Prepare and Prevent

By Nicholas Worrell

I recently had the privilege of speaking in Manchester, England, at the National Safer Roads Partnerships Conference. The United Kingdom has some of the lowest road-user fatality rates in the world. While our annual vehicle miles traveled vary greatly, on a typical day, about 109 road users are killed on America’s roadways, while only 5 Britons lose their lives the same way. But, as I reminded the conference audience, even one fatality is still too many.

This was a unique opportunity to represent the NTSB because the audience was mainly British law enforcement officers, and the British tradition of “policing by consent” was tailor‑made for a prevention-focused discussion. Policing by consent means that, because most people want law and order, the goal should be to prevent crime rather than focus on punishing perpetrators. Our Safety Advocacy Division operates with much the same philosophy, working to prevent transportation accidents by encouraging stakeholders to implement the agency’s recommendations. We also explain road safety to vulnerable populations, such as young drivers, to bring lifesaving information to the traveling public, and we share our findings with colleagues.

We know that, as we face coming challenges in road safety, prevention opportunities abound. Our recent speeding study noted the value of a “safe system” approach, which depends on layers of safety in a given road environment and recognizes preventive uses of technology, such as automated speed enforcement. Our recent investigation into the fatal crash of a partially automated vehicle allowed us to consider the double-edged sword of automation. Our investigations have shown that, as vehicles rely more and more on automated sensors, they also collect more data, which should be gathered in a standard format and reported when vehicles with enabled control systems crash.

The world is changing, crash factors are changing, and our tools are changing. The data that cars themselves can provide about crashes is expanding. As I told the law enforcement officers in Manchester, the NTSB has learned that everything an accident can tell us is worth our attention. We are conscious that every safety lesson learned is worth retelling, both to spur acceptance of our recommendations and to prepare ourselves, our colleagues, and the public for the challenges of a fast-approaching future. By sharing lessons learned across borders, we improve our chances at reaching zero transportation fatalities worldwide.

 

Nicholas Worrell is Chief of the NTSB Safety Advocacy Division.

 

Lessons from Our Runway Incursion Forum

By Member Christopher Hart

On September 19 and 20, the NTSB held a Runway Incursion Forum featuring some of the industry’s foremost runway safety experts. These experts came from far and wide, and from a variety of aviation associations, companies, research organizations, government agencies, and airports. It was a very thought‑provoking event, and I believe we had the right people at the table to address an increasing trend in the most significant (Levels A and B) runway incursion events.

NTSB Runway Incursion Participants
Member Hart and NTSB staff with Runway Incursion Forum participants.

The aviation industry has proven itself to be adept at tackling challenging safety issues. In the early 1990s, the fatal commercial aviation accident rate that had been declining for several decades began to plateau. Many safety experts concluded that further reduction in the rate was unlikely because the plateaued rate was already exemplary. Nonetheless, concerned that the volume of flying was projected to double in the next 15­–20 years—and with it, if the rate remained flat, the number of airline crashes—the industry began an unprecedented voluntary collaborative safety improvement program to further reduce the accident rate. This program was called the Commercial Aviation Safety Team, or CAST. Amazingly, CAST reduced the flat fatality rate by more than 80 percent in only 10 years.

Perhaps the most difficult challenge that we are currently facing regarding runway incursions is pursuing additional remedies in the absence of an accident. The industry is frequently accused of having a “tombstone” mentality: attempting to improve safety only when there’s a major accident. I applaud the efforts of the FAA, the general aviation community, the commercial aviation industry, and the airports, along with the front-line vigilance of the pilots, air traffic controllers, and airport operators who live and breathe this issue every day, to proactively identify ways of driving down the numbers. It’s a sign of this vigilance that they came together out of our common concern about the apparent turnaround from the previous downward trend in A and B incursions.

So, what did we learn from our forum? First and foremost, the staff who organized this event recognized one of the major lessons learned from the CAST collaboration: that everyone who is involved in a problem should be involved in developing the solution. Hence, we invited pilots, air traffic controllers, airport operators, affected industry organizations, and the regulator (the FAA), as well as those who collect and analyze the data­—in other words, everyone who is involved in the problem—to discuss their perspectives on the runway incursion problem.

Each participant emphasized the need for more and better data: data to help us identify the problems, determine what caused them, develop interventions, and determine whether the interventions are accomplishing the desired result. We need to determine how to collect better data, how to analyze the data more effectively, and, pursuing the collaboration concept, how to share the data more effectively, both with peers and with other participants in the system.

Perhaps the most challenging issues that warrant better data are the human factors issues regarding human limitations and vulnerabilities, and determining how humans can interact most effectively with rapidly advancing technologies. There has been considerable progress in understanding human factors in the cockpit, and it was interesting to hear in the forum about the development of a new program that also aims to enhance our understanding of human factors issues that affect air traffic controllers.

Participants at the forum also discussed several exciting new technologies—in the cockpit, in air traffic control facilities, at airports, and in airport ground vehicles—to help increase the situational awareness of pilots, controllers, and vehicle operators. We heard of many activities by the airport community to address “hot spots,” the places on the airport surface where runway incursions are occurring most frequently. These activities include changing procedures, improving training, adding new technologies, and making major capital improvements to modify airport geometry.

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Member Hart leads a roundtable discussion during the Runway Incursion Forum.

Runway incursions are increasing amidst a culture that, in the last 15–20 years, has become more sensitized to their potential danger. What is needed is both site‑specific remedies (due to the uniqueness of every airport) and systemic remedies that address the system’s commonalities. Through their presentations and active participation in our forum, it became clear to me that our forum participants refuse to wait for an accident to begin making improvements.

We heard from multiple participants that about 80 percent of runway incursions involve general aviation aircraft. Although the creation of new collaboration networks, such as the General Aviation Joint Steering Committee (GAJSC), is beginning to bring general aviation stakeholders more consistently into the runway incursion prevention conversation, we learned that the effort to bring all stakeholders to the table must continue, which is a challenge because the general aviation community is very broad and multifaceted.

I am optimistic that government, airlines, airports, and others will follow up on the most important directions that we collaboratively identified in the forum, and that they will continue to develop and deploy new solutions to the complex problem of runway incursions.

The full agenda, speaker biographies and a recording of the forum are available at https://go.usa.gov/xRhpC.

¿Qué se puede hacer para mejorar la seguridad del transporte de los trabajadores agrícolas migratorios?

Por Jennifer Morrison

Este Domingo pasado marcó el aniversario del choque de carretera más mortífero de la historia de Estados Unidos. Hace cincuenta y cuatro años, el 17 de septiembre de 1963, un autobús improvisado que transportaba 58 trabajadores agrícolas migratorios chocó con un tren de carga cerca de la ciudad de Chualar, California (consulte la figura 1) 32 personas murieron y 25 sufrieron lesiones. Los trabajadores que venían en el autobús estaban regresando de un campo de trabajo después de una jornada de diez horas recolectando apio en el Valle Salinas. Los pasajeros se transportaban en dos bancos largos colocados a lo largo de un camión de plataforma que estaba cubierto con un toldo.

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Titular e imagen del ejemplar del 18 de septiembre de 1963 de Los Angeles Times. En ese momento se creía que solo 27 personas habían perdido la vida pero el número de víctimas ascendió a 32.

Otro choque mortal de trabajadores agrícolas migrantes ocurrió en la década de 1970. El 15 de enero de 1974, la Junta para la seguridad del transporte nacional (National Transportation Security Board, NTSB) investigó un choque que involucró 46 trabajadores agrícolas migrantes cerca de Blythe, California. Un autobús de trabajadores agrícolas que viajaba por una carretera rural no pudo tomar una curva de la carretera y cayó al fondo de una zanja de desagüe. El autobús quedó apoyado en su lado izquierdo, parcialmente sumergido. Murieron diecinueve de sus ocupantes, incluyendo el chofer. En la mitad del último siglo se han efectuado numerosas mejoras en la seguridad del transporte y sin embargo ocurren choques catastróficos y la seguridad de los trabajadores agrícolas migrantes continúa siendo un problema.

Específicamente, durante el período de ocho meses desde noviembre de 2015 hasta julio de 2016, la NTSB investigó tres choques con numerosas muertes en los cuales 16 personas murieron y otros 57 resultaron lesionados. La mayoría de los fallecidos y lesionados eran trabajadores agrícolas migrantes que se transportaban hacia o desde granjas. La finalidad de nuestra investigación sobre estos choques es conocer sobre estas tragedias y responder la pregunta importante: ¿Qué se puede hacer para mejorar la seguridad del transporte de los trabajadores agrícolas migrantes?

Esta semana la NTSB abrirá el expediente público de 1,125 páginas de información documentando nuestra investigación en curso sobre el choque del 2 de julio de 2016 cerca de St. Marks, Florida. El choque involucró un autobús de trabajadores agrícolas que transportaba más de 30 personas desde una granja en Georgia a Belle Glade, Florida. El autobús no se detuvo en la intersección de la carretera estatal 363 y la autopista US 98, la cual estaba marcada con un cartel de señal de pare y una luz intermitente en rojo de señal de “pare”, y este fue impactado por un vehículo de tipo combinado de semirremolque con tractor de remolque. Después del choque se produjo un incendio y el chofer del camión y tres pasajeros del autobús perecieron (Consulte la figura 2).

El 28 de noviembre de 2017, la NTSB llevará a cabo una reunión pública de la junta para discutir las conclusiones de la investigación del choque de St. Marks, su causa probable y las recomendaciones de seguridad destinadas a prevenir choques futuros.  En la reunión la NTSB también revisará las circunstancias de los choques de Little Rock, Arkansas y Ruther Glen, Virginia (Consulte la figura 2).

Investigation Images
(Parte superior) Autobús y camión involucrados en el choque de St. Marks, Florida en su etapa final (Fuente:  Patrulla de carreteras de Florida). (Parte inferior izquierda)  Autobús involucrado en el choque de Little Rock, Arkansas mostrando la porción de la parte posterior faltante y el techo dañado.  (Parte inferior derecha) Camioneta para 15 pasajeros involucrada en el choque Ruther Glen, Virginia mostrando el techo deformado.

El choque de Little Rock ocurrió el 6 de noviembre de 2015, cuando un autobús que transportaba 20 trabajadores agrícolas desde Michigan a Texas se salió de la Interestatal 40 y chocó con una barrera de concreto.  El choque con la barrera ocasionó que el autobús se montara en el costado de la barrera y el techo del autobús impactara la columna de un puente que apoyaba el viaducto de la autopista. Como resultado del choque, 6 pasajeros del autobús perecieron.

El choque de Ruther Glen ocurrió el 8 de junio de 2016, cuando una camioneta para 15 pasajeros que transportaba 16 ocupantes, la mayoría de los cuales eran trabajadores agrícolas migrantes, se salió de la Interestatal 95. La camioneta se desplazó hacia la derecha por todos los canales de circulación e impactó a otro carro de pasajeros antes de volcarse varias veces.  Seis de los pasajeros de la camioneta salieron impelidos y fallecieron.

Al examinar la supervisión de los transportistas federales y estatales que participan en el transporte de trabajadores agrícolas, los mecanismos de las regulaciones de seguridad, la divulgación y la educación de la comunidad agrícola y las mejores prácticas de los estados individuales, esperamos desarrollar recomendaciones de seguridad para mejorar la seguridad del transporte de los trabajadores agrícolas migratorios y evitar tragedias futuras.

Asista a la reunión del 28 de noviembre de 2017, en persona o mírela en la transmisión por la web donde se tratarán las investigaciones de los choques de St. Marks y otros con las propuestas a la pregunta: ¿Qué se puede hacer para mejorar la seguridad del transporte de los trabajadores agrícolas migratorios?

Jennifer Morrison es una investigadora encargada de la oficina de la NTSB para la seguridad en las carreteras