Category Archives: Safety Recommendations

Preventing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: We All Are Part of the Solution

By Leah Walton, NTSB Safety Advocate

Twenty years ago, in the summer of 2001, I began my work to end alcohol-impaired driving at the Minnesota State Office of Mothers Against Drunk Driving. Over these 20 years, although so much has changed and there’s much to celebrate, we still have so much work to do.

What Can We Celebrate?

In 2001:


  • 10,142 people lost their lives in alcohol-impairment-related crashes (in 2019, the most recent data on record).
  • Every state has a .08 BAC law. And in 2018, Utah became the first state to enact a .05 BAC per se law.
  • 34 states and DC have ignition interlock laws that apply to all offenders.

I’m no mathematician, but I think that means that, while I’ve been working on all different types of impaired-driving prevention programs, laws, and studies, approximately 200,000 lives have been lost, and millions of people have been injured, as the result of an act that is 100% preventable. 200,000 lives!

We Must Do More

We have consistently lost around 10,000 people to alcohol-impaired driving crashes every year for the past 10 years.

As I wrote this blog, I became disheartened and frustrated. For 20 years, I’ve worked with colleagues to create messages for 20 Independence Days, New Year’s Eves, St. Patrick’s Days, Memorial Days, Labor Days, and on and on, and we’re still here, asking you not to get behind the wheel after drinking this July 4th, asking you to designate a sober driver before you begin celebrating, asking you to call a ride-share or taxi, or to be the one that takes the keys from a friend, family member, or neighbor so they don’t drive impaired.

Unfortunately, we know that more than 400 people will likely die this weekend, many because someone made the choice to drive after drinking.  As long as individuals continue to make the choice to drive after drinking or dosing, and as long as life-saving technology and legislation is delayed, we will continue to push this message. Losing 10,000 lives every year. It must stop.

Solutions Exist

Ignition interlocks for all impaired-driving offenders, lower BAC per se laws, in-vehicle technology to detect alcohol and prevent a driver from starting a vehicle—all of these are possible now and would reduce impaired-driving crashes. However, these solutions wouldn’t even be necessary if people would make the choice to call a cab or a sober friend, or just elect to not drink or take impairing drugs if they know they will be driving.

Preventing alcohol-impaired driving has been on the NTSB Most Wanted List of Transportation Safety Improvements (MWL) for over 20 years and, at the rate we’re going, it will be there 20 years from now. But, at the NTSB, we are nothing if not persistent, and we will continue to advocate to prevent impaired driving for another 20 years if that’s what it takes. This July 4th, commit to being part of the solution, and help us retire this MWL safety item once and for all.

I Lived My Dream: Looking Back on 15 years at NTSB

By Chairman Robert L. Sumwalt

I guess it all started on an overcast day in 1973, when I found myself on the scene of a fatal aviation crash for the first time. I had heard of the crash on my car radio, and, as a curious 17‑year-old, I decided to find the crash location. Once there, I saw the remains of a twin-engine airplane lodged in the bases of the surrounding pine trees. Seeing that accident scene sparked an acute interest within me for accident investigation. In college, I spent copious amounts of time in the government documents library reading NTSB aircraft accident reports. It was then, in the mid-1970s, that I began to dream of becoming an NTSB Board member. Today, as I wrap up 15 years with the agency, serving as Board member, vice chairman, and chairman, I can look back and say I have truly lived that dream.   

Photo of ‘The State’ newspaper article on the 1973 plane crash

I was sworn in as the 37th member of the NTSB in August 2006. Seven days later, I found myself on the scene of another aviation disaster. Comair flight 5191, a regional jet operated as a Delta Connection, crashed just off the departure end of a runway in Lexington, Kentucky. Forty-nine lives were lost that morning after the pilots inexplicitly attempted to take off on a short, closed, unlighted runway. The investigation found that the pilots’ casual attitude during preflight and during the brief taxi, including their engaging in nonpertinent conversation, enabled the crew’s errors. Quite simply, the crew wasn’t paying attention and lost positional awareness. As a result, we issued and reiterated several recommendations to prevent that same type of accident. Today, flights are safer because airline pilots use enhanced procedures to ensure they are aligned with the proper runway before departure, and pilots have electronic maps that provide real-time position information during taxi.

Since the Comair crash, I’ve been on the NTSB Go-Team and served as the Board member on scene for 35 transportation accidents and crashes, and I’ve been involved in the deliberation and determination of probable cause of over 250 accidents and crashes. I’ve met with grieving family members and friends of victims on the worst day of their lives. Through these interactions, the one thing that really stands out to me is just how precious life really is. I’ve often said that we are here to give a voice to those who don’t have a voice—the victims of transportation accidents and their families. I take great solace knowing our work really does make a difference and keeps others from enduring similar tragedies.

Looking back, I believe there are two things that allow the NTSB to truly be one of the “Best Places to Work in the Federal Government,” as ranked by the Partnership for Public Service: the agency’s mission, and our people.

First, the agency’s mission: Congress charged the NTSB with investigating transportation accidents and crashes, determining their cause, and issuing safety recommendations to prevent similar accidents and crashes, reduce injuries, and save lives. It’s an important calling—taking something tragic and learning from it so others don’t have to endure such a tragedy. Since the NTSB was formed in 1967, we have investigated over 150,000 aviation accidents, along with thousands of highway, marine, rail, pipeline, and hazardous materials accidents and incidents. In that period, we’ve issued over 15,000 safety recommendations, the majority of which have been successfully implemented.  

Our people: Even with a respectable mission, you’re nothing without great people. Fortunately, this is where the NTSB really takes the cake. We’re able to attract and retain dedicated, bright employees who love their work. We actively promote diversity and inclusion, and my hope is that the agency will continue to expand this effort. Our investigators’ passion and determination to find the truth is uplifting. Even throughout the pandemic, although working remotely, NTSB employees found ways to continue delivering our high-quality products. For example, before the pandemic, we had never conducted virtual Board meetings, where we deliberate accident findings, determine the probable cause, and adopt safety recommendations. Even with the challenges of 2020, our employees figured a way to get it done. We held 12 virtual Board meetings in a year, which compares favorably to a normal year of in-person meetings. Although I’ve always had high expectations of the NTSB workforce, I can honestly say that, considering the challenges we all faced during the pandemic, NTSB employees surpassed all expectations.

There are several other qualities that allow the NTSB to be a highly respected federal agency. One of our core values is transparency; we are open and honest with the public about our work. We realize that, when a transportation disaster occurs, the public needs to be assured that the government is conducting an open, competent, and thorough investigation. Therefore, we deliver fact-based information as we learn it. We don’t speculate—just the facts, ma’am. All NTSB Board meetings and hearings are open to the public (literally in person when not in pandemic times, and always via webcast). We post all our accident reports and publications on our website, along with the docket for each accident, which provides reams of background information such as interviews, photos, and technical information that may not be in the final accident report.

When I was sworn in for my first term at the agency in 2006, I told the audience something I had read: “Public service is one of the highest callings in the land. You have the opportunity to make a positive impact on families, communities, states, and sometimes the world.”

I followed up by saying, “I truly believe this statement applies so well to the work of the NTSB. When my term expires, I hope we can look back and say, ‘you know, we—Board members, professional staff, industry, labor, government—we all worked together, and we did make a positive impact.”

Indeed, looking back, I truly believe we have made a difference.

I will very much miss working with the incredibly dedicated men and women of the NTSB. It will be hard to stop referring to the NTSB as “we.” Although I will no longer be part of it, the NTSB will always be part of me. For that privilege, I am forever proud and grateful. I have lived my dream.

Speeding: Comprehensive Changes Needed to Save Lives

By Chairman Robert L. Sumwalt

Speeding kills about the same number of Americans as drinking and driving, yet garners far less attention. We’ve included “Implement a Comprehensive Strategy to Eliminate Speeding-Related Crashes” on our 2021–2022 Most Wanted List of Transportation Safety Improvements because we know that speeding significantly impacts safety on the country’s roads, and we think it’s past time for that to change.

About 100,000 people died between 2009 and 2018 because someone was driving faster than the speed limit, or faster than road conditions warranted. That’s around 9,000 to10,000 crash deaths per year, or nearly one in three crash deaths in the United States. Preliminary reports suggest that during the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, speeding might have been even more prevalent in traffic deaths, despite a drop in vehicle miles traveled.

Speeding can lead to a loss of vehicle control. Faster speeds also increase the severity of injuries once a crash occurs. (If you’re having a hard time imagining this potential destruction, you can watch what happens in a speed-comparison crash test video produced by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.) This relationship holds true for all road users, but when vulnerable road users, such as pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists, are involved in a crash with a vehicle, their chances of being severely injured skyrocket as impact speeds increase. For a pedestrian, the risk of being severely injured goes from 10 percent at an impact speed of 16 mph to 25 percent at 23 mph, 50 percent at 31 mph, 75 percent at 39 mph, and 90 percent at 46 mph.

For drivers, passengers, and vulnerable road users alike, speeding kills.

What can be done?

Speeding deserves to be a nationally recognized road safety issue. Regulators must collaborate with traffic safety stakeholders to develop and implement an ongoing program to increase public awareness of speeding as a national traffic safety issue.

Further, we recognize that posted speed limits aren’t always based on real-world conditions. Present guidance says to set speed limits in speed zones within 5 mph of the 85th percentile speed of free-flowing traffic. But that guidance could lead to higher operating speeds, which would, in turn, result in an even higher 85th percentile speed, and on and on. What’s more, there’s no strong evidence that the 85th percentile speed decreases crash involvement rates; therefore, states should instead adopt an engineering study methodology that places less emphasis on the 85th percentile speed in favor of a more robust approach I that includes additional parameters, such as roadway geometry, crash statistics, and traffic volumes.

We believe that states should amend current laws to remove restrictions on the use of automated speed enforcement. Regulators should update and promote speed enforcement guidelines to reflect the latest enforcement technology and operating practices. For heavy vehicles, including trucks, buses, and motorcoaches, regulators should develop performance standards for advanced speed-limiting technology, such as variable speed limiters and intelligent speed adaptation devices, then require that all newly manufactured heavy vehicles be equipped with them.

At the individual level, drivers should follow the speed limit and slow down during bad weather, when a road is under repair, in poorly lit areas at night, and in other challenging driving conditions.

Finally, we should ​protect vulnerable road users through a Safe System approach—another Most Wanted List safety improvement. You can watch our May 20 roundtable on the Safe System approach on the NTSB YouTube channel.

We have yet to fully understand how the pandemic changed our driving habits as a nation; we have known for some time, however, that the faster a vehicle is going when it strikes something, the greater the energy expended in the crash, and the greater the resulting damage. Setting logical speed limits—and enforcing them—is something that can be done right now to save lives.

We hope that, as drivers return to the roads, regulators use this opportunity to reevaluate speed‑limit guidance, evaluate the effectiveness of current enforcement programs, and assess new speed-limiting technology that can improve safety for all road users.

Learn More

Implement a Comprehensive Strategy to Eliminate Speeding-Related Crashes

Safety Study: Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes Involving Passenger Vehicles | July 2017

Motorcoach Run-Off-the-Road and Collision with Vertical Highway Signpost, Interstate 95 Southbound, New York, NY | March 2011

Protect Vulnerable Road Users through a Safe System Approach

Prevent Alcohol- and Other Drug-Impaired Driving

By Member Thomas Chapman

Impaired driving, in some form or another, has been on every NTSB Most Wanted List since its inception in 1990. And with more than 10,000 impaired-driving deaths each year, it’s hard to imagine ever removing it. We have made safety recommendations about impaired driving prevention since 1968.Yet the problem persists.

Part of the challenge we face at the NTSB is that we generally issue safety recommendations to entities, not individuals. If we issued safety recommendations to every individual ever arrested for impaired driving—even excluding those actually involved in impaired-driving crashes—we would be issuing impaired-driving recommendations to one million individuals per year.

Instead, we hope individuals will understand their personal responsibility as drivers and make smart and safe choices when they get in their vehicles. Impaired driving is 100 percent preventable. We have investigated many impaired-driving crashes, and for individual drivers, the lessons we have learned always boil down to a single word:


Don’t drive drunk, don’t drive after “a drink or two,” don’t drive after using even one dose of any impairing drug. But experience tells us that some drivers will ignore this message. They will get behind the wheel when they have no business being there, start the engine, and take their chances—with their own lives, their passengers’ lives, and the lives of other road users. Just counting arrests, drivers take that chance and lose a million times a year. About 10,000 times a year, impaired drivers take a chance, and someone loses their life.

While alcohol impairment continues to cause nearly three out of every ten traffic deaths in the United States, other impairing drugs pose a different, but overlapping, challenge. The 2013–2014 Texas Roadside Survey found that one in five drivers surveyed were using one or more impairing drug—licit or illicit, prescribed or over the counter.

Drinking and Driving: a Stubborn Problem

In our 2013 report, Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Alcohol-Impaired Driving, we recommended that states do the following:

  • Reduce the per-se blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for all drivers to .05 g/dL or lower
  • Conduct high-visibility enforcement of impaired-driving laws and incorporate passive alcohol-sensing technology into enforcement efforts
  • Expand the use of in-vehicle devices to prevent operation by impaired drivers
  • Use driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts and other programs to reduce recidivism by repeat DWI offenders
  • Establish measurable goals to reduce impaired driving and track progress toward those goals

.05 percent BAC

We recommended that states lower the legal per-se BAC limit from .08 percent to .05 percent or lower. We know a BAC of .08 g/dl is simply too high. In 2018, Utah became the first state to lower its legal BAC limit to .05 percent, and other states are considering following suit. This change isn’t only about preventing crashes involving drivers with BACs between .05 percent and .08 percent, though. Research shows that reducing the legal BAC limit from .08 percent to .05 percent serves as a broad deterrent, lowering alcohol-involved crashes and crash deaths across the board.

Interlocks for all Offenders

According to Mothers Against Drunk Driving, one-third of alcohol-impaired driving fatalities are caused by repeat offenders. States need to require drivers convicted of alcohol-impaired driving to use an interlock device. These devices keep a car from starting until a breath sample has been provided, analyzed for ethanol content, and determined to be lower than prescribed limits.

Impairing Drugs Other than Alcohol

Other impairing drugs present a different problem. Although we have investigated many crashes involving drivers under the influence of drugs other than alcohol, we don’t really know the extent the problem. Many of our recommendations surrounding impairment focus on finding the best ways to spot the problem. However, unlike for alcohol, no standardized drug-testing protocols exist for other impairing drugs, and there is no established limit or threshold to determine impairment by other drugs. Additionally, evaluating the impact of impairing drugs on drivers is challenging because many drugs impair individuals differently.

The Bottom Line

States, regulators, and industry can take action to reduce deaths and injuries from drunk driving. In terms of alcohol, we know that states and individuals can change the all-too-often grim outcomes. The question is whether they choose to. For drugs other than alcohol, it’s time we improve testing, especially as attitudes and laws change toward these drugs and they become more widely used.

We at NTSB will continue to advocate for our safety recommendations for education, legislation, and technology to end this deadly problem. But ultimately the problem comes down to individual choice. Choose to drive sober or designate a sober driver.  You can drink responsibly, you can drive responsibly, but you cannot drink and drive responsibly.

Learn More

NTSB Most Wanted List: Prevent Alcohol- and Other Drug-Impaired Driving

Pickup Truck Centerline Crossover Collision with Medium-Size Bus, Concan, TX, March 2017

Multivehicle Work Zone Crash on Interstate 75. Chattanooga, TN, June 2015

Safety Study: Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Alcohol-Impaired Driving. May 2013

Episode 40: Motorcycle safety month

May has been designated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as National Motorcycle Safety Awareness Month, to help motorists understand standard motorcycle driving behaviors and learn how to drive safely around motorcycles on our roadways.

In this episode of Behind-the-Scene @ NTSB, NTSB Highway Crash Investigators Kenny Bragg and Mike Fox discuss our investigation of the June 2019 collision between a pickup truck with a trailer and a group of motorcycles in Randolph, New Hampshire, its safety recommendations, motorcycle safety tips, and other considerations that drivers should take when sharing the roadway.

Behind-the-Scene @NTSB podcast Motorcycle Safety episode

The NTSB final report for the Randolph, New Hampshire, crash mentioned in this episode is available on our website.

To learn more about the NTSB Most Wanted List and the Protect Vulnerable Road Users Through a Safe System Approach and Prevent Alcohol- and Other Drug-Impaired Driving safety items, visit our Most Wanted List web page.                                                                                                                                        

The previously released podcast episode featuring Kenny Bragg is available on our website.

The previously released podcast episode featuring Mike Fox is available on our website.

Get the latest episode on Apple Podcasts , on Google PlayStitcher, or your favorite podcast platform.

And find more ways to listen here: