Tag Archives: Motorcycle Safety

Alive Another Day, Thanks to a Helmet

By Amy Ingram Terrone

“Amy, I need you to sit down,” said the voice over the telephone. It was my sister calling.

When a conversation begins that way, it’s never good news. My brother had been in a motorcycle crash, and was being flown to a local Shock Trauma unit. Nobody was sure that he would survive his injuries on the way. I jumped in the car, picked up my sister who lived nearby, and headed to the hospital.

We drove by the crash scene on the way to the hospital. I saw my brother’s overturned bike in the woods off the side of the road. Police officers, who were still documenting the scene, had cordoned off the area.

A young man that witnessed the crash was still there. He told me that my brother struck a curb at about 45 mph, lost control of the bike, and flew 30-40 feet before landing in the woods.

I asked two questions: “How is he?” and “Was he wearing a helmet?”

“Not good but alive and barely conscious,” was his reply. And, yes, the young man told me, he was wearing a helmet.

I thought there might be hope. After all, I work at the NTSB as a safety advocate and I know that most motorcycle crash deaths are caused by head trauma – and helmets are a vital protection from that risk. Motorcycle helmets reduce the risk of head injury by 69 percent and reduce the risk of death by 42 percent. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that helmets saved the lives of 1,630 motorcyclists in 2013 and that 715 more lives in all states could have been saved if all motorcyclists had worn helmets.

Back in the car en route to the hospital, I felt an odd sense of deja vu. These feelings of extreme worry, sadness, and anger – anger at that stupid motorcycle – seemed eerily familiar. And then I remembered: my mom had also been in a motorcycle crash 12 years prior.

When my mom’s motorcycle skidded on gravel while going around a corner at 25 mph, the bike went out from underneath her and she hit the ground hard. Her head slammed onto the gravel road, bumping along the way as her momentum propelled her forward. But her head was protected by the helmet, so she was merely stunned. However, the weight of the falling motorcycle broke her leg, and she also broke her hand. Her injuries required a long recovery. But I remember her later saying, “Thank God for the helmet.”

To put it mildly, my family has a mixed relationship with motorcycles. Some of us love to ride. But like the families of riders everywhere, we also know we might get that next call – and if we do, we know by now to ask, “Were they wearing a helmet?”

When I entered my brother’s hospital room, his dented helmet was on the floor, and I touched it with reverence. If what I had heard from the witness and police were true, this helmet had, no doubt, saved his life. 

My brother has a long road to recovery. He suffered multiple fractures, of his ribs, wrist, and ankles; six broken bones in his back; a punctured lung and lacerated liver; and a long list of less severe injuries. But he is alive.

Yes, I work for the NTSB. But I am also a big sister and a daughter. I’ve seen the kinship that riders feel with one another; now, after helping family members through the aftermath of a bad crash, I wanted to share our story with that extended family.

Thankfully, my brother’s and mother’s accidents occurred in Maryland, a state with a universal law requiring helmet use.

Currently only 19 states and the District of Columbia have laws requiring all motorcyclists to wear a helmet. Laws requiring only some motorcyclists to wear a helmet are in place in 28 states, and three states still have no law whatsoever.

I have heard riders who resist helmets saying that helmets take away their freedom – and that they’re only taking a personal risk. But I know that most also have sisters or daughters or other family members. I know that they’re not taking that risk just for themselves.

If you are thinking about riding without a helmet, think again. My brother and mother might have lost the feeling of the air upon their faces as they cruised down the road, but they gained something immeasurably more valuable: the feeling of air entering and leaving their lungs – ultimately, another day on this earth.

And I gained having them both in my life.

Amy Terrone is a Safety Advocate in the NTSB Office of Safety Recommendations and Communications.

Gear up, Clear up, Heads up

By Chris O’Neil

Chris O’Neil checks his directions on his smart phone after safely pulling over during a pick up ride near Bluemont, Virginia.
Chris O’Neil checks directions on his phone after safely pulling over during a pick up ride near Bluemont, Virginia.

As a motorcyclist I’m keenly aware of the risk I accept every time I saddle up – whether it’s to run an errand around town, join the herd for an organized ride like Rolling Thunder, or to head out for a multi-state, multi-day solo ride – every time I take to the road on two wheels I’m thinking about how I can limit or mitigate the risks associated with my passion for riding. As an employee of the world’s premier accident investigation agency, the National Transportation Safety Board, I’m equally aware of the need to share the word about safety during Motorcycle Safety Awareness Month.

Distracted or impaired drivers, drivers who change lanes without signaling and drivers who simply don’t “see” motorcyclists, are among the many risks, over which motorcyclists have little control, which we face each time we mount up. It’s therefore critical that motorcyclists focus on eliminating or mitigating the risks we can control, the things we can do to avoid or better survive an accident while riding a motorcycle. In broad terms it means gearing up, clearing up and staying heads up.

You have to gear up, every time, every ride. That means over the ankle boots, riding pants or chaps over jeans, a leather or textile jacket, full finger gloves, a DOT approved helmet and eye protection. There really is something to the saying, “dress for the slide, not the ride.” Top siders, shorts and a T-shirt might be comfy and well suited for your post ride activities, but that kind of attire in no way protects you – not even from a sunburn, much less road rash – while on your motorcycle. Yes, I get hot in that gear during the sweltering Virginia summers, but I’d rather be sweaty for a while, than suffer a long recovery from road rash if I’m involved in a crash. Plus, I’ve found, those big beetles, cigarette butts, and stones sting a bit less when you’ve got the right gear on.

Distracted driving is creeping into the world of the motorcyclist and it’s not always the fault of the other drivers. The ability to incorporate the same technology found in automobiles, such as GPS navigation, CB radio, Bluetooth for cell phones, and other multi-media entertainment, continues to increase and with the added bells and whistles comes the potential for distracted driving. Consistent with the NTSB’s call to Disconnect from Deadly Distractions — a 2016 NTSB Most Wanted List issue – I make sure I clear up from all distractions when I ride, and I advocate for others to do so. When we ride, we need our senses – sight, smell and hearing – to work together to warn us of danger. Those senses don’t work as well if our mind is focused on a GPS display, the music thumping through earbuds or speakers, or a phone call. Riding a motorcycle offers you a unique state of mind that is free of the distractions of day-to-day life. Why then would you want to clutter up that moment with potentially deadly distractions? Don’t add to the distracted driving problem – before you saddle up, gear up and then clear up.

With our body properly protected, and our mind properly focused, we’re ready to ride our properly equipped and inspected bike. Once we are kickstands up, we have to be heads up. What I mean here is all throughout our ride, regardless of setting, we have to plan for the unexpected. “Where will I go if that car pulls into the intersection? Where is my escape route if this car comes into my lane? What’s on the other side of this blind curve? What’s on the other side of that hill crest? Do I have enough distance between me and the car ahead of me? What if the car coming up on me from behind doesn’t realize I’m stopped for a red light?” Being in the moment of your ride includes thinking about and planning for the unexpected. Riding defensively requires you to think 12 seconds ahead, anticipate what could go wrong, and to formulate a plan to deal with the threat. When you’re free from deadly distractions, it’s easy to be heads up and still enjoy your ride and be in the moment.

Whatever you ride, wherever you ride, whenever you ride, embracing the principles of Gear Up, Clear Up and Heads Up can help keep you safe while enjoying the greatest form of transportation. Want more tips on motorcycle safety? Check out the Motorcycle Safety Foundation’s site at http://www.msf-usa.org.

For information about the NTSB’s recommendations to improve motorcycle safety visit http://www.ntsb.gov/news/events/Pages/150.aspx.

Chris O’Neil is Chief of the NTSB Public Affairs Division.

T.E. Lawrence, Hugh Cairns, and Your Motorcycle Helmet

By Jeff Marcus

T.E. Lawrence on his motorcycle. By http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afbeelding:Lawrence_of_Arabia_gif.GIF, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=794368During World War I, a young British officer named T.E. Lawrence helped to lead the 1916-1918 Arab Revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule, playing a critical role in defeating the forces of the Ottoman Empire. His exploits are immortalized in the film Lawrence of Arabia, starring Peter O’Toole.

His role in the war is fairly well known. What is less known is how Lawrence influenced motorcycle safety.

Lawrence was an avid rider, at a time when very few motorcyclists wore a helmet – a protection invented in 1914 but very rarely used.

On May 13, 1935, he was riding his Brough Superior SS100 on a narrow road near his cottage near Wareham, England when he entered a dip in the road. This dip obstructed his view of two boys on bicycles, which he swerved to miss. He lost control of his motorcycle and was thrown over the handlebars.

Like most motorcyclists of his day, Lawrence, age 46, was not wearing a helmet. He suffered serious head injuries and never regained consciousness. Six days later, he died.

One of the doctors treating Lawrence was a young neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns. After Lawrence’s death, Cairns conducted an autopsy and discovered that Lawrence had suffered “severe lacerations and damage to the brain” when his unprotected head struck the ground. Had Lawrence survived, brain damage would probably have left him blind and unable to speak.

Cairns’s diary later revealed that it was Lawrence’s death that sparked in him a curiosity to study head trauma caused by motorcycle crashes. His efforts in this area would ultimately spur him to pioneer helmet safety research.

Cairns speculated that thousands of motorcycle deaths in Britain could be avoided if riders’ heads were protected. And, in October 1941, the British Medical Journal (BMJ) published the results of his first study, titled “Head Injuries in Motor-cyclists – the importance of the crash helmet.” The study showed that, in the 21 months prior to the start of World War II, 1,884 motorcyclists died on British roads. In the 21 months following September 1939 (when England entered World War II), Cairns found that 2,279 riders died, an increase of 21 percent – despite the fact that gasoline rationing at the time had likely reduced the number of overall vehicles on the roads.

Because helmet use was so rare, Cairns could only study a few motorcycle accident survivors who had worn helmets when they crashed. All of them survived. His research convinced the British Army that wearing helmets could save lives.

In November 1941, the British army mandated that soldiers wear helmets when they traveled by motorcycle, and Cairns embarked on a study of the new policy’s effect. In his 1943 BMJ paper, titled “Head Injuries in Motor-cyclists, with Special Reference to Crash Helmets,” Cairns found that motorcycle fatalities in the Army had fallen from approximately 200 a month to 50 a month, a reduction of 75 percent.

In a 1946 study in the BMJ, titled “Crash Helmets,” Cairns compared Army dispatch riders wearing helmets to civilian riders, who were still generally bareheaded. He concluded: “From these experiments there can be little doubt that adoption of a crash helmet as standard wear by all civilian motorcyclists would result in considerable saving of life.”

Hugh Cairns died of cancer in 1952, so he did not live to see the lifesaving changes that his research helped to bring about. In 1973, the British Parliament passed a law mandating that motorcycle riders use helmets, and, in 2013, the number of motorcycle riders who died on British roads was 331. This was a fraction of the annualized toll on British roads prior to Cairns’ research, despite a huge rise in traffic volume from the World War II era to today.

Years before the NTSB or similar organizations existed, Cairns was already showing how the study of accidents can improve transportation safety. It took the death of Lawrence of Arabia, the career of a dogged and brilliant researcher, and countless subsequent actions to demonstrate the value of a helmet.

This is one story from history we can – and should – all learn from, especially during this month of May, Motorcycle Safety Awareness Month.

Jeffrey Marcus is a Transportation Safety Specialist in the Office of Safety Recommendations & Communications

Motorcycle Safety: Freedom Isn’t Free

By Nicholas Worrell

Motorcycle with an American flag.The Fourth of July is coming, and so are motorcycle rallies around the nation—from Fly Our Flag High in Minnesota to the Hollister Independence Day Motorcycle Rally in California. Riding is about freedom; maybe that’s why bike rallies are such a natural fit with the Fourth.

But freedom isn’t free.

As a motorcyclist myself, I know that the feeling of freedom we experience out on the open road needs to be balanced with the good forethought to take smart precautions. Responsibility comes with freedom—or vice versa—and it’s not only responsibility to yourself, but to your family, your friends, and others on the road.

If I might be forgiven for quoting an Englishman in a Fourth of July blog, actor Hugh Laurie once said that riding a motorcycle is “like flying. All your senses are alive.” He also recently tweeted, “As they used to say… there are old motorcyclists, and bold motorcyclists, but there are no old, bold motorcyclists.”

So you young motorcyclists, listen up. And you old motorcyclists spread the word. The price we pay for the freedom to ride is not just the cost of the bike – it is the constant attention to safety.

I see young riders taking to the streets on bikes like a Kawasaki ZX10R Ninja, Yamaha FJR 1300, or a Harley Davidson V-Rod shortly after passing their motorcycle tests. I wonder whether they know and understand the power and speed of such models.

I started off with a Honda 150, moved up to a 250, and finally learned to operate bigger bikes like a 600, 750 or 1000. That longer learning curve gave me a chance to improve my physical and mental skills.

At the same time, as I moved up through different models, I learned first-hand the value of proper protective gear. When—not if—you lay that bike down, you need protection between the pavement, the bike, and you.

Brett Robinson, executive director of the National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators, reminds us that “gearing up” is not just about wearing the right protective clothing. “Gearing up also means training and lifelong learning.”

According to Robinson,“If you haven’t received training, you should seek training. And don’t just get training once and think you’re done. We need to get training throughout our riding careers, continuously improving our skills. And not only our physical skills but our mental skills as well, because riding is so much mental.”

Robinson also says there’s a lot of merit to mentorship programs, where new riders ride with more experienced riders. But, he says, “the experienced rider should ride at the level of the new rider, and not vice versa.”

One of the greatest riders and stuntmen ever, Evel Knievel, said, “Riding a motorcycle on today’s highways, you have to ride in a very defensive manner. You have to be a good rider and you have to have both hands and both feet on the controls at all times.”

Concentrate and focus on the riding task, not on distractions. Be on the lookout for distracted drivers who don’t see you, and stay mentally engaged. (With all the new technology on the bike today, operating the vehicle itself can be a tall order – don’t complicate it with distractions that aren’t related to operating the vehicle!)

Don’t ride if you’re too tired, and don’t ride while impaired. And that doesn’t just mean alcohol and illicit drugs. Prescription medications and over-the-counter medications could also be sources of impairment.

What about “the other guy,” the one in the passenger vehicle who should share the road?

“Never trust anybody,” Robinson says. “You have to ride like you’re invisible.”

But while Robinson recognizes that any given motorist might not see a rider, he also urges riders to make themselves as visible to motorists as possible. “Being conspicuous is so important,” he says. “When I ride I wear a reflective vest, and I think it makes a big difference.”

This Fourth of July, get out there and celebrate freedom in the way motorcyclists do. But remember that, as Thomas Jefferson said, “the price of liberty is eternal vigilance.”

Safe riding takes a commitment to protecting yourself, other riders, and motorists.

Nicholas Worrell is Chief of the NTSB’s Office of Communications’ Safety Advocacy Division.

When States Repeal Motorcycle Helmet Laws

By Nicholas Worrell

Nicholas Worrell testifying in NebraskaThe NTSB stands behind universal motorcycle helmet laws because they save lives. But over time, states with such laws have weakened or abandoned them. At present, several states are contemplating the repeal of such laws. As a rider myself – and one who values his helmet and other protective gear – I am working in favor of states keeping these life-saving helmet laws.

As most readers know, to “repeal” a law means, in essence, to take it back. However, states that have repealed such laws have seen an increase in motorcycle fatalities.

The fact is many families who have lost loved one as the result of a motorcycle related accident wish they could take back or repeal that day, especially if they were not wearing the proper protective gear. Head injury is a leading cause of death in motorcycle crashes.  And wearing a DOT compliant helmet is the number one defense against head injuries.

 When I ride in states with such laws, the difference in helmet use is obvious, and the statistics on helmet use bear this out: Where there is a universal helmet law, almost nine out of 10 riders wear their helmets. Where there is not such a law, the proportion drops to a little over half.

 So when I think about helmet laws, I think about the guys who I ride with. I think about half of them riding without helmets – even though we all know that at one time or another we’ll be forced to “lay down” the bike, or may even be involved in a motor vehicle-motorcycle crash.

Today, I had the an opportunity to testify before Nebraska Unicameral Legislature’s Transportation and Telecommunications Committee urging them to table L.B. 31, their helmet law repeal bill.  The NTSB opposes its enactment, because when universal helmet laws are repealed, motorcyclist deaths and injuries rise – it’s just not good public safety policy.  The NTSB does not want to see deaths and injuries rising in Nebraska as we have seen in every state that has taken a repeal action.

To illustrate the point to the legislature I cited the story of Jim Lumley, a rider in his fifties who took his Kawasaki Ninja 650 to work on the morning of April 13, 2012.  Jim rode to work that morning with his lights on, not to see the road more clearly, but so that drivers would see him.  As Jim approached an intersection where a car was waiting to make a left turn, by all indications, the driver had seen him. He proceeded through the intersection at about 25 miles per hour. But the car turned into Jim’s path so suddenly that he did not even have time to touch his brakes.  Jim’s motorcycle struck the car’s right front side, and Jim was catapulted over his bike and onto the car’s hood. His head crashed into the car’s windshield.

That date – April 13, 2012 – was the date that Michigan repealed its helmet law. And yes, Jim Lumley was a Michigan resident.  It was legal for Jim to ride to work that morning without a helmet. But Jim was wearing his.  When his head hit the car’s windshield, the helmet was destroyed, but Jim survived.

Jim says he was lucky. One of his daughters worked in a hospital and constantly reminded him of the grisly consequences she’d seen when riders took to the road without helmets, or with “skullcap” helmets that did not protect their faces.

So like me, Jim always wore his helmet. But not everybody gets frequent reminders, as Jim did, and not everybody works at a safety organization, as I do.

I reminded Nebraska legislators that according to NHTSA, there were nearly 5,000 motorcyclist fatalities in 2012, and 93,000 motorcyclist injuries. More than one out of every seven people who is killed on our roads is a motorcyclist. From 2009 to 2014 Nebraska experienced a total of 89 motorcycle fatalities.

I reminded them of the experience of other states that had repealed their helmet laws, resulting in increases in injuries and fatalities. I let them known that some Nebraskans will die, and others will suffer unnecessarily severe injuries, if Nebraska enacts L.B. 31 and repeals its helmet law.

 In 2007, the NTSB issued safety recommendations to all the states that did not at that time have a universal helmet law for motorcyclists. Because Nebraska protected all of its riders with such a law, it was not one of the states which received such a recommendation.

The NTSB stands by universal helmet laws, and continues to see proof that they work: For every rider without a helmet who died in a state with a universal helmet law in 2012, 10 died in states without one.

 We urge states with such lifesaving laws to continue to protect their motorcyclists by defeating repeal efforts.

Nicholas Worrell is a Safety Advocate in the NTSB Office of Communications.

Ride for Cause

photo of Rolling Thunder being saluted.
taken by Luis Gomez at Rolling Thunder 2010.

By Nicholas Worrell

Memorial Day Weekend is upon us, the moment I publicly longed for in my winter blog. It’s been a long winter, and it’s great to get the bike back on the road and feel the open air. This weekend always features some outstanding events where riders reconnect with some old buddies, meet new ones, enjoy the road together, and come back with some stories to tell.

But in 2012 we lost almost 5,000 riders nationwide, 13 people each day who won’t be able to make new memories and share old stories. I am not okay with that – and here’s why.

For several years my buddies and I, from various rider clubs, have packed our bikes, hitched our trailers, and taken that long journey from Washington, DC to Myrtle Beach Bike Week to enjoy a week of riding and fun. I can hear the patient if ominous deep idle of the Harleys, the buzzing roar of Suzukis, and every now and then the signature sound of a Ducati dry clutch. I can feel as much as hear the bikes, all sizes, colors and shapes, thundering through the streets. And I can see the smiles on every rider’s face, smiles that look like relief from Old Man Winter. I can feel the cool breeze hitting my face as I cruise the stretch of Atlantic Street with riders I’ve known for years.

And I want to see each and every one of them the next year. I don’t want our group missing any of those bikes’ sounds, or any of those faces I’ve gotten used to seeing.

In the Washington area, every year Rolling Thunder brings hundreds of thousands of bikes roaring through the streets in commemoration of servicemen and women who have sacrificed for our freedom. The dedicated bikers at Rolling Thunder ride in remembrance of those who gave everything to protect us.

With all that they sacrifice for us, it’s a shame when we don’t protect ourselves.

As a United States Marine Corps veteran (OORAH), I am not shy about standing up for one more noble cause: motorcycle safety. (Repeat after me: “This is my bike. There are many like it, but this one is mine…”) And I want everyone to realize that motorcycle safety isn’t just riders’ business – it’s everybody’s.

So here are some of the dangers and safety measures we should all take into consideration during this Memorial Week and the rest of the summer.

    1. Drivers: Share the Road and Pay Attention. For riders one of the biggest concerns is for drivers who are not focused on the task at hand. The distracted driver who simply can’t wait to place that call, send that text or update that Facebook posting, and the impaired driver who is too intoxicated to focus on the road, endanger everybody, but riders have less protection. If you ask most riders their number one concern, they’ll say “lack of respect by drivers” (or perhaps stronger words to that effect). So listen up drivers: share the road, don’t drive distracted, and don’t drive impaired.


    1. Riders: There’s a time and a place. Too many of us have done it, even though we shouldn’t have; we’ve taken those corners a little too fast, or performed a trick on a crowed highway. There is a time and place for those types of stunts, and it’s not where you’re taking risks with the lives of other riders or drivers.


  1. You’re not invincible. Gear up. Long-time riders will tell you that road-rash is no fun, and it can get way worse than that. I am amazed every time I see riders in shorts and a tee shirt, not realizing that at any moment they can take a fall from a simple pebble or piece of gravel in the street. Then there are riders who would never drive without a seat belt but ride without a helmet. A helmet is your best defense against head injuries when, not if, you fall off the bike. Helmets are estimated to be 37-percent effective in preventing fatal injuries to motorcycle operators and 41-percent for motorcycle passengers.

If you still have to gear up, get it done now, so the rest of the summer is a safe one.

  1. Ride for a Cause. Safety first. I’ve been waiting all winter to ride, but I’m not gunning the engine the first chance I get. I’m going to ride at safe speeds. I’ll be in a DOT-compliant helmet. And you won’t find me drinking and riding, because those two are a bad mix. If you live to ride, like me, you also have to ride to live.

Riders, respect the road and the power of your bike. And drivers, have a little consideration for the riders; put away the distractions and keep your eye out for that rider sharing the road with you.



Nicholas Worrell is a Safety Advocate in the NTSB Office of Communications.

Getting Ready for Riding Season

By Nicholas Worrell

Motorcycle Safety CourseIt’s been 15 years since I completed the Maryland Rider Training Program and got an M2 added to my driver’s license. That training was thorough and tough. But, boy, it was rewarding, and it’s fun to ride. With all the snow we’ve had across the country this winter, I sympathize with the frustrated motorcycle riders longing for a break from the cold and to get back on the open road. Your bikes are likely in storage or in the garage or at the various bike shops awaiting repairs and preparation for when you will take them to the streets.

Be assured that while you may not be on your bike during these winter months, you’re not forgotten. There are many motorcycle safety advocates working hard to ensure your highest level of safety when you mount your bikes for that first ride of the season.

Last Friday the Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF) came to the NTSB to discuss the naturalistic study on which the MSF and Virginia Tech Transportation Institute have been working for the past year. The point of the research is to find better safety strategies by tracking the natural day-to-day experience of riders. This is another effort to make your riding experience safer. “Using small video recorders and instrumentation mounted on motorcycles, the study combines unobtrusive, continuous data collection with post-incident interviews to create a comprehensive picture of many factors contributing to both crashes and near-crashes.”

As Evel Knievel, an American icon in extreme sports wrote, “Riding a motorcycle on today’s highways, you have to ride in a very defensive manner. You have to be a good rider and you have to have both hands and both feet on the controls at all times.” Knievel is right. But as I learned in my training, it doesn’t stop there. It’s also important to wear proper protection.

Our goal at the NTSB is to make the riding experience safer, save lives, and reduce injuries. In the last decade, more than 50,000 riders have died in motorcycle-related accidents. That’s far too many. That’s why we do safety studies and issued a series of recommendations for states to enact laws to ensure riders wear the proper protection, most notably a DOT-compliant helmet. And that’s why we are highlighting occupant protection for motorcyclists and all other forms of transportation on this year’s Most Wanted List. We care about your safety and your life; we want you and many more people to live to ride another day.

Riding season is coming soon, but it’s never too early to start thinking safety. Never too early to shop for that helmet, leather gear or take a refresher course. As you prepare your bikes, consider what steps you and your team of riders can take to make the ride even safer. Let’s make this year the safest motorcycle riding season ever.

Nicholas Worrell is a Safety Advocate in the NTSB Office of Communications.