Category Archives: Most Wanted List

Automation Complacency: Yet Another Distraction Problem

By Vice Chairman Bruce Landsberg

 The NTSB first issued a recommendation to ban the nonemergency use of portable electronic devices (PEDs) while driving in 2011, and the issue area “Eliminate Distractions” remains on the 2019–2020 Most Wanted List of transportation safety improvements. Web browsing, texting, calling (even hands-free)—all these activities significantly increase the chance of a distracted‑driving crash, which is why we’ve recommended banning driver use of PEDs in all states. Most states have prohibited texting and handheld PED use in some form.

The science is clear: our addiction to PEDs is growing exponentially, placing constant connectivity and convenience above driving responsibly and resulting in tens of thousands of completely preventable, and often tragic, crashes. Driving while distracted by a PED is dangerous and it’s completely preventable. Simply, the decision to drive distracted is dumb.

Distraction by PED is becoming the “old” kind of distraction, as automated and semi-automated vehicles enter the roadways. These new technologies are creating a new and equally menacing kind of distraction: automation complacency. Overreliance on these advanced driver assistance technologies lulls drivers into a false sense of security. They trust in the machine and believe that frees them up to text, e-mail, or watch a video. With automation complacency, human nature asserts itself. We evolve to the idea that we will probably never have to intervene when a computer is doing the driving. The mind creates a rule based on positive prior experience; after so many seamless rides in an automated vehicle, we begin to relax our guard.

A tragic illustration of this growing phenomena is the March 18, 2018, fatal crash in Tempe, Arizona, involving a pedestrian and an Uber vehicle with an experimental automated driving system. The Uber’s safety driver was expected to intervene only if needed, a task that required the driver’s full engagement in and focus on the driving task. Instead, in the half hour prior to colliding with and killing the pedestrian, the driver spent more than a third of her time gazing down at the center console, sometimes for as long as 26.5 seconds. The vehicle’s onboard camera recorded the driver watching streamed content on her cell phone through most of the crash sequence.

Tempe, Arizona crash
NTSB investigators on-scene in Tempe, Arizona, examining the Uber automated test vehicle involved in a March 18, 2018 collision with a pedestrian.

Humans are creatures of habit and this driver had traveled this route more than 20 times in the test vehicle with no incident. Simply put, she was bored. She failed to remain vigilant and succumbed to automation complacency, believing the system would detect pedestrians under all circumstances—even when crossing outside of a crosswalk at night. Our investigation of this fatal crash determined that an attentive human driver would have easily avoided the pedestrian.

If it’s hard to convince drivers to stop multitasking while driving a vehicle that is not equipped with an advanced driver assistance technology, then it’s going to be that much harder to convince drivers to stay alert in a highly automated vehicle. The fact is, there is no commercially available vehicle in the United States that is fully autonomous and doesn’t require the driver’s full attention to the driving task.

The companies testing automated vehicles on public roads, the states where these vehicles are tested, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration must work to prevent this emerging form of distraction from increasing and placing roadway users at increased risk, particularly vulnerable users such as bicyclists and pedestrians. Now is the time to get ahead of the problem.

 

 

Do You Have a Super Bowl Transportation Game Plan?

By Leah Walton, NTSB Safety Advocate

Super Bowl LIV is almost here! Whether you’re a diehard 49ers or Chiefs fan, or you simply watch for the commercials and halftime show, the play clock is just about to hit 0. For many football fans, driving will be part of the game plan both before and after the Super Bowl, regardless of if they’re driving over 3,000 miles to Hard Rock Stadium or simply going across town to a playoff party. Either way, safe transportation plans must be part of every driver’s Super Bowl game plan.

Football is a game driven by statistics. As Chiefs’ Head Coach Andy Reid takes in stats for his Super Bowl game plan, consider these highway safety facts as you prepare your own playbook.

Driving fast with a sport car

So, what should your Super Bowl transportation game plan look like? First, drive sober or designate a sober driver. Recognize that even a moderate amount of alcohol or certain drugs will make driving unsafe. If you don’t have a designated driver, a taxi, public transportation, or rideshare charge will be a minor cost compared to a DUI—or worse. Second, don’t drive fatigued. Immediately after the game and before work the next day, check yourself to see if you are rested enough to drive safely. If you got less than 7 to 9 hours of sleep, recognize the need to take breaks, take a nap, or find another mode of transportation. Third, don’t drive distracted—the postgame highlights, commentary, and selfies can wait until you safely arrive at your destination.

Whether you’re rooting for the 49ers, Chiefs, or simply a good game, make sure you have a designated sober driver in your Super Bowl lineup, and follow this gameday rulebook!

 

 

Toward a Brighter Future

By Nicholas Worrell, Chief, NTSB Safety Advocacy

As Chief of the NTSB’s Safety Advocacy Division, I firmly believe in taking time to visit with young and novice drivers and promoting safe driving habits in line with the NTSB’s safety advocacy goals. Last week, I addressed students at Stranahan High School in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, during the National Black Caucus of State Legislators (NBCSL) Annual Conference.

Each year, the conference features a visit by Corporate Round Table (CRT) members to a local high school. There, team members engage high school juniors and seniors, educating and empowering them to pursue professional development, foster individual strengths, and strive for excellence.

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In this photo taken December 4, 2019, Nicholas Worrell, Chief, NTSB Safety Advocacy Division (top right) is pictured with students from Stranahan High School and National Black Caucus of State Legislators Corporate Round Table members.

The NBCSL’s CRT has a rich history of working with schools across the country to provide high school students with essential insights and knowledge about careers and professional development. CRT members have long positively impacted the youth with whom they work. The theme for this year’s CRT visit was “L.E.A.D: Leadership, Excellence, Attitude, Determination.” Team members discussed the importance of leadership today, and the importance of cultivating leadership skills necessary to succeed tomorrow.

But, as I told the students at Stranahan High School, what’s most basic to all these aspirational goals is to live long enough to build that bright future for themselves and others.

My part in the presentation was to make the young audience aware of the many dangers and challenges they may face on the road, and to arm them with the right driving habits to actually arrive at adulthood. Just as youth must first make it safely to adulthood to have the chance to tackle the leadership challenges to which they aspire, they must also learn to lead themselves before they can successfully lead others. As John C. Maxwell once wrote, “A leader is one who knows the way, shows the way, and goes the way.” The first step in the leadership journey is self-leadership.

That goes double for making our roads a safer place for all.

In 2018, more than 36,000 people died in traffic crashes. For young people like those I talked to last week, the best chance to stay alive to adulthood is to not be involved in a traffic crash, either as a driver, passenger, pedestrian, cyclist, or motorcyclist. The deadly effect of traffic crashes on teenage lives will only change when our culture around road safety changes, and the only way that shift can take place is if we each personally embody the change we wish to see in the world.

Driving sober, disconnecting from our phones and other devices, buckling up, and obeying the speed limit are all simple—and safe—practices. However, making the right choice consistently takes integrity (doing the right thing even when nobody is watching). In road safety, knowing the way is not always the hard part. The ability to consistently go the way, and to show others the way, separates leaders from followers.

Holding ourselves accountable for our conduct on the road is the first step toward the cultural shift we need to ensure our nation’s youth make it to adulthood to fulfill their goals.

For previous blogs on the NBCSL school visits, see the links below:

https://safetycompass.wordpress.com/2017/12/08/inspiring-youth-safety-leaders/

https://safetycompass.wordpress.com/2016/12/16/looking-for-leaders/

https://safetycompass.wordpress.com/2015/12/14/talking-transportation-safety-with-black-and-hispanic-state-legislators/

Safe Travels This Holiday Season

At the NTSB, we determine the cause of transportation crashes and accidents, and issue safety recommendations that, if implemented, could save lives and minimize injuries. Unfortunately, we see far too many tragedies that could have been easily prevented. As we head into the holiday season, Vice Chairman Bruce Landsberg and Member Jennifer Homendy share some travel safety tips to keep you and your loved ones safe on our roads, on our rails, on our waterways and in the air.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Distracted Driving

By Vice Chairman Bruce Landsberg

Are you one of the hundreds of thousands of people who use a cell phone every day while driving? It’s so convenient, but it’s also potentially deadly. Thousands of people across the nation will lose their lives this year to this preventable public health problem. Tens of thousands more will suffer life-altering injuries, ranging from internal organ damage to permanent paralysis. A recent AAA survey found that 97 percent of drivers indicated that texting or email on a cellphone while driving was very or extremely dangerous and nearly 80 percent indicated holding and talking on a cellphone while driving was perceived as very or extremely dangerous.  Yet, a majority of those drivers admitted to using their cellphone while driving. Why?

Most people believe that they are above-average drivers and multitaskers. However, the science says otherwise. The human brain, a single-core processor, does not multitask—it processes sequentially. Depending on the complexity of the tasks we’re attempting, our ability to keep up with multiple tasks drops due to overload. You see it on the road every day: poor lane-keeping, running red lights and stop signs, not moving when the light changes or failing to keep pace with traffic. Distraction too often manifests in a collision with another vehicle, an object, or a pedestrian. The science says that some people are literally addicted to their devices, and while most addictions are just detrimental to the user, with distracted driving, both the abuser and the innocent drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists near them are in jeopardy.

On the spectrum of distraction, talking on a cell phone, even with a handsfree device, is bad, but texting is even worse. Take your eyes off the road for more than 3 seconds, and the odds of a bad outcome go up quickly. In fact, a naturalistic driving study by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute found that texting behind the wheel increases the risk of a crash or near crash by as much as 23 times. A car traveling at 55 mph goes about the length of a football field in those 3 seconds, and, let’s be honest, it takes most people far more than 3 seconds to send a text. Each extra second multiplies the danger.

Driving fast with a sport car

In 2011, we recommended that all states ban the use of personal electronic devices, for nondriving tasks, when the vehicle is in motion. Today, although most states have laws against texting and driving, two still don’t: Missouri and Montana. Why not? Those who oppose a ban in these states often argue that they don’t want yet another law interfering with their already over‑regulated lives. They insist it’s a matter of personal freedom.

We recently held a distracted driving round table in Missouri where we heard from survivor advocates, advocates, experts, and legislators on the need to enact a law to address the distracted driving problem in the state. The survivor advocates who have lost loved ones would tell you that a comprehensive distracted driving law could have prevented the life-altering tragedy they’ve endured that no one should have to experience.

Polls show that Americans typically support restrictions on device use, which is why most states have already enacted laws, but a few legislators are uneasy about passing laws that might be perceived as over‑reaching. A vocal minority believe their convenience outweighs the public’s right to safety on the road; however, no one has the right to put another person at risk. The reality is, distracted driving is no different than driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol. They’re both intentional acts that cause crashes that can result in death and life-altering injuries to innocent people. Safety advocates tell drivers they can either drink or drive; they also should be telling drivers they can either text or drive.

Web

While states continue to debate the extent of their personal electronic device bans, you can act on your own to save a life, regardless of the law in your state. Put the phone down when your vehicle is in motion. As we work toward a future where using a cell phone while driving is as unacceptable as driving while impaired by alcohol or other drugs, we all have a personal responsibility to help eliminate the deadly distractions on our roadways.

The New Car Assessment Program

By Member Jennifer Homendy

In 2017, 37,133 people died on our nation’s roadways in preventable crashes. One way to prevent or mitigate these tragedies is by implementing proven and effective vehicle technologies, such as collision-avoidance systems. We know these systems can save lives, and our current Most Wanted List includes “Implementing Collision Avoidance Systems in All New Highway Vehicles.” We want to see these technologies installed as standard equipment on all vehicles, and we want consumers to know which systems offer the best protection when they are buying a car.

MWL07s_CollisionAvoidance.jpg

That’s why, in a 2015 special investigation report, we called on the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to expand the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) 5-star rating system to include collision‑avoidance system ratings, and to post those ratings on the new-vehicle window sticker. The 2015 Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act) also required that crash-avoidance information be presented next to crashworthiness information on the window sticker. The NCAP 5-star rating system—which the United States pioneered in 1979— provides valuable information to consumers about crashworthiness, including protection from frontal and side impacts and vehicle rollover. This information can lead to consumers making safer choices, which will motivate manufacturers to design safer cars—it’s a win-win for consumers and for public safety! But NCAPs are most effective when they continuously raise the bar and, while NCAPs in other nations have progressed, the US NCAP has not made any significant program updates in more than a decade.

In recent years, NHTSA has sought public comments on a potential plan to update and modify the US NCAP. For example, in 2015, the agency discussed potentially updating its crashworthiness testing to add a crash-avoidance rating that would incorporate the effectiveness of multiple safety technologies and to create an overall 5-star rating that would encompass crash avoidance, crashworthiness, and pedestrian protection. The NTSB knew that it was possible to incorporate collision avoidance and other safety features into NCAP ratings because other NCAPs around the world had already done so, and we publicly supported these plans to expand the NCAP rating system. We encouraged NHTSA to move forward.

In our 2017 safety study on speeding, we called on NHTSA to consider using the NCAP to incentivize passenger vehicle manufacturers to adopt intelligent speed adaptation systems, and in our 2018 special investigation report on pedestrian safety, we recommended that the agency incorporate pedestrian safety systems, including pedestrian collision-avoidance systems and other more passive safety systems, into the NCAP. As of today, these recommendations remain open.

Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of death and injury in the United States. We want to see more vehicles using collision-avoidance systems to save lives—but they can only save lives if people know they exist and understand how to use them. This makes the NCAP, a successful program on which car buyers already rely, the perfect avenue for increasing consumer awareness of the latest safety technology and, ultimately, making our roads safer.

As we mark the 40th anniversary of the US NCAP program, let’s take advantage of the program’s success and use this moment to make it even stronger. Our nation’s road users deserve it.

 

The State of Distracted Driving in Missouri

DistractionsRoundtable Misssouri Tweetable Image

By Nicholas Worrell, Chief, NTSB Safety Advocacy Division

In today’s world, distractions are everywhere. From the electronic device in our hands to the infotainment options built into our vehicles, we are surrounded by hundreds of things vying for our attention every day. Even if we try to block out these distractions, despite our best efforts, our minds are not capable of multitasking like we think they are. When distraction happens on the road, the consequences can be deadly. What distracted-driving crashes leave behind are families and loved ones struggling to cope with sudden, tragic loss. Distracted driving is a serious threat to the safety of everyone on the road, and the NTSB is committed to eliminating it. This issue has been on our Most Wanted List of transportation safety improvements since 2011, but it remains a serious problem.

As technology becomes more ubiquitous in our lives, distraction risks increase—not only for drivers and passengers in cars, but also for cyclists and pedestrians, as well. Currently, 48 states and the District of Columbia have tried to reduce distracted driving by prohibiting all drivers from texting while driving. Unfortunately, Missouri is one of the two states without a cell phone restriction that would prevent drivers over the age of 21 from texting while driving. As a result, 841 people have died in crashes related to distracted driving since 2010, when we recommended that states enact legislation prohibiting the nonemergency use of personal electronic devices for all drivers. The Missouri Department of Transportation reported that, in 2018 alone, 19,239 motor vehicle crashes involved distracted drivers. Those crashes resulted in 79 fatalities and 7,345 injuries. Until the law in Missouri is changed, these crashes will continue to happen. Only by completely removing the distraction will the roads become a safer place.

Any use of a cellphone or other electronic device will always come with increased and unnecessary risk. This includes hands-free devices; just because our hands are on the wheel doesn’t mean our minds are focused on the road. Science has repeatedly shown us that holding a conversation using a hands-free device still creates a cognitive distraction that makes us more likely to be involved in an avoidable crash. There is no such thing as safe cellphone use on the road, and, unfortunately, many people learn this the hard way, when it’s ultimately too late.

On October 29th, the NTSB, in partnership with StopDistractions.org, the Missouri Department of Transportation, the Missouri Coalition for Roadway Safety, and the University of Missouri, will host our fourth roundtable on distracted driving. The even will bring together researchers, state and federal government officials, victims’ families, and other safety advocates to discuss strategies to prevent distracted driving. For more information about this roundtable event and to register, visit our website.

Legislation and enforcement are critical to making our roads safer, but, ultimately, it comes down to people taking personal responsibility. We have the power to make choices that can positively or negatively affect ourselves as well as others. Choose to put aside that temptation to send one more message, make a quick call, or post an update or photo. Your right choice could end up saving not only your own life, but someone else’s. No call, no text, no update is worth a human life. Visit the links below for more NTSB blogs on the dangers of distracted driving, and check out our Most Wanted List for more information on distracted driving.

We must act now to end preventable distracted driving crashes, injuries, and fatalities—in Missouri, and nationwide.